Purification and Prayer (At-Taharah was-Salah)

 

Bismillahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim

Al-hamdu lil-lah was-salatu was-salamu ^ala Rasulil-lah wa ^ala Alihi wasahbihi wa sallam

 

81. Question: How many obligatory prayers are there in a day and a night? What are these prayers?

Answer: It is obligatory to pray five prayers in a day and a night. Allah ta^ala said

فسبحان الله حين تمسون وحين تصبحون وله الحمد فى السمـْوات والأرض وعشياً وحين تظهرون

which means: Glorify Allah in the night and in the morning, praise be to Allah in the skies and earth and at sunset and at dhuhr time (ar-Rum 17-18). The prophet , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

خمس صلوات كتبهن الله على العباد

which means: Five prayers Allah made obligatory on the slaves (narrated by Ahmad). These are: adh-Dhuhr, al-^Asr, al-Maghrib, al-^Isha’ and as-Subh (or al-Fajr).

 

82. Question: When does the time of adh-Dhuhr prayer start and when does it end?

Answer: The time of adh-Dhuhr starts when the sun crosses its zenith, that is when it crosses the middle of the sky towards the western direction. Its time ends when the length of an object’s shadow becomes equal the length of the object plus the length of the shadow when the sun was at its zenith.

 

83. Question: When does the time of al-^Asr start and when does it end?

Answer: The time of al-^Asr starts immediately after the time of adh-Dhuhr ends. Its time ends by the complete disappearance of the disc of the sun at sunset.

 

84: Question: When does the time of al-Maghrib start and when does it end?

Answer: The time of al-Maghrib starts by sun set and ends by the disappearance of the twilight. The twilight is the redness that is seen in the western horizon after the sun has sat.

 

85. Question: When does the time of al-^Isha’ start and when does it end?

Answer: The time of al-^Isha’ starts after the disappearance of the twilight and ends by the appearance of the true Fajr.

 

86. Question: When does the time of as-Subh start and when does it end?

Answer: The time of as-Subh starts by the appearance of the true Fajr (see Q #87). The time of as-Subh ends by the rise of the first part of the sun when seen on a flat land.

 

87. Question: What is the true Fajr?

Answer: The true Fajr is the whiteness that is mixed with a light redness. It is horizontal in shape and appears in the eastern horizon.

 

88. Question: Why is it called the true Fajr?

Answer: It is called the true fajr because it is preceded by the false fajr. The false fajr is a whiteness that is vertical in shape. It appears before the true fajr, then disappears and then is followed with darkness. It was called false, because it deludes that it is the fajr which obligates the prayer while it is not.

 

89. Question: Who is obligated to pray the five prayers on time?

Answer: The five prayers are incumbent to be prayed on time upon the Muslim who is pubescent, sane and tahir. It is prohibited (haram) to pray them ahead of their times, that is before their times start. Moreover, it is haram to postpone them after their times for no excuse.

 

90. Question: Give an example for the excuse for which one may pray the prayer ahead of its original time or delay it after its original time?

Answer: Among the excuses that make it permissible to pray the prayer ahead of its original time and delay it afterwards is the long travel. It is permissible for the traveler who is traveling a long travel to join between adh-Dhuhr and al-^Asr at the time of one of them. He is also excused to join between al-Maghrib and al-^Isha’ at the time of one of them.

 

91. Question: What is incumbent upon the guardian of a child who is mumayiz and Muslim with regards to the child?

Answer: The guardian has to order the child to pray after the child reaches seven lunar years and to fast if the child is able to. The guardian has to hit the child if he or she does not pray or fast after reaching ten lunar years. In particular, the child is ordered to fast and is hit for not fasting if the child is capable of fasting. The meaning of at-Tamyiz (mental discrimination) for the child is to reach an age at which the child understands when addressed and can answer properly when asked.

92. Question: Is it incumbent upon the guardian to teach the child about some of the beliefs and judgments?

Answer: Yes it is incumbent upon the guardian to teach the child that Allah is the Creator of everything and that He is not similar to any of his creations. He is attributed with the perfect Attributes that are befitting to Him such as Power, Will and Knowledge. He is clear of attributes of imperfection such as weakness, ignorance and place. He created honorable slaves who do what they are ordered and they are the angels. He revealed to the messengers and sent the prophets to give the good tidings and warn. The first one of them is Adam and the final one of them is Muhammad, , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Muhammad is the son of ^Abdullah who was born in Makkah and received revelation therein. He immigrated to al-Madinah in fulfilling the order of Allah. He died there and was then buried therein. Allah will make the Jinn and the humans die and then will resurrect them for judgment on the Day of judgment. The child must be taught similar things pertaining to belief. The guardian also teaches from the Islamic Judgments the incumbency of the prayers and az-Zakah, the illegitimacy of lying, az-Zina and stealing, and the legitimacy of some issues like selling and buying and other apparent matters.

 

93. Question: Is al-Wudu’ a condition of as-Salah?

Answer: Al-Wudu’ is a condition of as-Salah because Allah said:

يا أيها الذين ءامنوا إذا قمتم إلى الصلاة فاغسلوا وجوهكم وأيديكم إلى المرافق وامسحوا برؤوسكم وأرجلكم إلى الكعبين

which means: The believers are ordered in preparing for as-Salah to wash their faces, their hands to the elbows, to wet-wipe the hair of their heads and to wash their feet to the ankles (Al-Ma’idah 6).

 

94: Question: Mention the integrals of al-Wudu’.

Answer: Al-Wudu’ has six integrals:

- Intention

- washing the entire face: from the hairline- where it is usually situated on most people- to the chin, and from the ear to the ear, washing the two hands with the elbows

- wet-wiping some of the head

- washing the two feet with the ankles

- and keeping the order as mentioned. If one does not fulfill the order, one’s wudu’ is not valid according to ash-Shafi^iyy.

 

95. Question: How is the intention made in Wudu’.

Answer: One intends in his heart when washing the first part of the face “The purification (at-Taharah) for the prayer”. One may also intend one of the other valid intentions like “lifting the minor ritual impurity (hadath asghar)”.

96. Question: Is it an obligation to make the water reach the inner part of the man’s beard and his ^aridayn during al-wudu’?

Answer: It is obligatory to make the water reach the inner part of the non-thick beard and the non-thick ^aridayn However, for the thick beard and the thick ^aridayn, one does not have to make the water reach their inner parts. It is enough to wash the outer part. The hair is defined as thick when the color of the skin underneath it is not seen through it. The ^aridayn are the two areas of the hair which grow on the side of the face.

97. Question: Mention the invalidators of al-wudu’.

Answer: The wudu’ is invalidated by:

- the emission of anything from the eliminatory outlet except al-maniyy

- touching the penis or vagina or anus with the inner part of the naked hand

- touching the skin of a marriageable woman who attained an age at which she is normally desired

- losing consciousness except if one is sleeps with the buttocks firmly seated.

98. Question: What is meant by “a marriageable woman (ajnabiyyah) who attained an age at which she is normally desired”?
Answer: Ajnabiyyah is a woman who is not among the maharim women, who are the women one is not allowed to marry in any situation. The meaning of “an age at which she is normally desired” is that she reached an age at which she is sexually attractive to a person with a normal inclinations. Hence, a girl who has one or two years of age is not considered in this category. The old women is considered.

99. Question: How does one sleep with the buttocks firmly seated?

Answer: This will happen when one sleeps and his buttocks are firmly affixed to the ground without a separation between them and the ground. In such a way, one is sure that wind and the like cannot exit out.

100. Question: What are the things which obligate al-’istinja’ and how is it fulfilled?

Answer: Al-’istinja’ is obligated when any wet thing is emitted from the eliminatory exits except al-maniyy. It may be fulfilled by using water, a stone, or both. The stone can be replaced by an uprooting, tahir, solid, un-respected thing. It is better to make istinja’ with the stone- or its replacement-  first and then follow it with water.

101. Question: Speak about how to perform al-’istinja’ with water and al-’istinja’ with the stone.

Answer: Making istinja’ with water is done by pouring water until the area becomes tahir. Al-’istinja’ with the stone is done by wiping the area at least three times, or more, until the area becomes tahir, even though a trace might be left. This trace is what cannot be removed except when one uses water.

102. Question: Give an example about something that is uprooting and something which is not.

Answer: Paper tissue, Kleenex, is an uprooting thing, but glass is not.

103. Question: Give an example about something which is not solid.

Answer: Dirt is something which is not solid.

104. Question: Give an example about something which is respected and something which is not.

Answer: Bread is a respected body. Paper on which Islamic information or a respected Name is written is respected. Stone or paper tissue is not a respected body.

105. Question: If urine or wet excrement go beyond the outlet, is using the stone sufficient for performing istinja’?

Answer: If urine goes beyond the glens penis or the wet excrement goes beyond the meeting area of the buttocks when one is standing, then it is not sufficient to use the stone. It is also not sufficient in this case to use the uprooting, tahir, solid and the un-respected thing for istinja’. In this case, one has to use water.

106. Question: If wet excrement has dried on the outlet, would stone be sufficient for al-’istinja’?

Answer: No stone would not be sufficient for al-’istinja’ if the wet excrement has dried on the outlet. Water has to be used for the validity of al-’istinja’.

107. Question: Is having purification (at-taharah) from the major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) a condition for as-Salah? What would the person do if he does not find water or if water hurts him?

Answer: At-taharah from the major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) is a condition for as-Salah. The person who does not find water or who is harmed by water performs at-tayammum. He does that in order to acquire the permissibility for the obligatory praying. He will en perform the obligatory bath when becoming able to do so.

108. Question: What things obligate performing the pacificator bath (al-Ghusl)?

Answer: The following obligate performing al-ghusl:

- The emission of al-maniyy

- sexual intercourse

- termination of menses-

- termination of  postpartum bleeding and childbirth.

109. Question: How does one identify al-maniyy?

Answer: Al-maniyy is identified by one sign of the following signs: It is emitted with pleasure, it is emitted in spurts, it has the odor of dough when wet and the odor of egg yolk when dry.

110. Question: Does sexual intercourse without the emission of maniyy obligate performing al-ghusl?

Answer: Yes. Just copulating obligates performing al-ghusl. This conforms to the hadith:

إذا لاقى الختان الختان فقد وجب الغسل

which means: If the male and female copulate then al-ghusl is an obligation (narrated by Ibn Majah).

111. Question: If the delivery was without bleeding, would it obligate performing al-ghusl?

Answer: Yes, delivery obligates al-ghusl even if the delivery was without bleeding.

112. Question: What are the integrals of al-ghusl?

Answer: The integrals of al-ghusl are: The intention of lifting the major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) or a similar intention, washing the whole body, hair and skin, with pure water at least once even if the hair is thick.

113. Question: Mention the conditions of purification (at-Taharah).

Answer: The conditions of purification (at-Taharah) are: Al-’Islam, i.e., the person has to be a Muslim, to be at the age of mental discrimination (at-tamyiz), the removal of anything which may prevent water from reaching the part to be washed, to let the water flow on the part to be washed, and the water has to be purifying- (tahir and mutahhr) (see Q #115).

114. Question: Is it sufficient just to wet-wipe the organ in performing al-ghusl or al-wudu’?

Answer: It is not sufficient just to wet-wipe when washing is required, because the flowing of water is a condition for the validity of at-taharah. The meaning of flowing is that water naturally runs over the washed part.

115. Question: What is purifying water (tahir and mutahhir).

Answer: It is water that is pure by itself and can effect purity in other things. By using it one can perform wudu’ and Ghusl (lift the hadath) or remove the filth- najas.

116. Question: What is the water which is pure (tahir) but not purifying (mutahhir) and give an example?

Answer: The pure but not purifying water is that which is pure by itself, but does not effect purification in other things. It is like water already used in fulfilling the integrals of wudu’ or ghusl.

117. Question: If water has changed appreciably by a tahir material that dissolves in it (like milk), would this water then stop from being purifying or not?

Answer: It is still pure but not purifying anymore (tahir but not mutahhir). For example, water’s color, taste or odor has changed because of milk and the change is appreciable, hence it is not called water anymore, and it stops from being purifying. On the other hand, if the change is not appreciable, in this case, water remains purifying and appropriate for performing at-taharah with it.

118. Question: What is the judgment on water in which some filth-najas fell in it and this filth-najas is not exempted?

Answer: If an un-exempted filth-najas, like urine or wine, fell in little water, water becomes -najas- filthy. Little water is that water which is less than qullatayn (about 51 gallons). The previous judgment is applicable on little water whether any of water’s qualities has changed or not. On the other hand, if filth-najas fell in an amount of water which is qullatayn or more, water becomes-najas- filthy when its taste, odor or color has changed by the filth. If none of these qualities did change by the filth-najas, then water remains purifying.

119. Question: Give an example for one najas-filth that is exempted which does not affect najas-filthiness in water in case it falls in it.

Answer: If un-exempted najas-filth like a fly falls in water and then dies in it, water then does not become najas-filthy by that under the condition that none of water’s qualities is changed by that.

120. Question: What is the measure of al-Qullatayn?

Answer: Al-Qullatayn is the amount of water that fills a round hole whose diameter is one cubit (dhira^) and depth is 2.5 cubits.  Alternatively, it is a square hole whose length, width and depth is one cubit and a quarter.

121. Question: For which person dry ablution (at-tayammum) is permissible?

Answer: The person who is permitted to perform tayammum for as-salah is the one who cannot find water or is harmed upon using it.

122. Question: When would at-tayammum be performed for fulfilling the obligation of praying?

Answer: At-tayammum is done for the obligatory prayer after the time of this prayer has sat in.

123. Question: If there was najas-filth on the body and the person did not have other than a little water. This water is enough either for al-wudu’ only or the removal of najas-filth only. What would the person do in this case?

Answer: The person uses water to remove the najas-filth of his body and perform at-tayammum for as-salah.

124. Question: What does one use for performing at-tayammum?

Answer: For performing at-tayammum one uses unmixed, purifying , un-used before and dusty soil. According to other than imam ash-Shafi^iyy, one may perform at-tayammum with stone.

125. Question: How would one perform at-Tayammum.

Answer: The person performs at-Tayammum by striking the soil with his hands one time. While doing that, the person intends to acquire the permissibility for praying. He keeps this intention also while he is transferring the soil up to his face until wiping the first part of his face. He then wipes his face. Then, he strikes the soil another time with which he wipes his hands and arms from the tip of the fingers to the elbows.

126. Question: What is prohibited upon the person who invalidates his wudu’ (i.e. who is in a state of minor ritual impurity, hadath asghar)?

Answer: It is haram upon the person who is in a state of minor hadath to: Pray, circulate around the Ka^bah, carry al-Qur’an and touch it. One cannot pray in this case for the prophet, , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: لا يقبل الله صلاة بغير وضوء   which means: One’s salah is not acceptable to Allah if one has invalidated his wudu’ unless one performs wudu’ (narrated by Abu Dawud). One cannot circulate around the Ka^bah either, because the prophet, , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

الطواف بمنزلة الصلاة إلا أنه يحل فيه كلام الناس

which means: circulating around the Ka^bah is like as-Salah except that Allah made talking permissible during it (narrated by al-Hakim). Moreover, it is haram for one to carry and touch al-Qur’an in this case also, because Allah said:  لا يمسّه إلا المطهرون    which means: Only those who are in a state of Taharah  may touch the Quran (al-Waqi^ah 79). The prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, also said:

لا يمس القرءان إلا طاهر  which means: No one touches al-Qur’an except someone who is tahir (narrated by al-Bayhaqiyy).

127. Question: What is prohibited on the one who emitted maniyy (junub)?

Answer: It is haram for the person who emitted maniyy (junub) the same matters which are prohibited for the one who invalidates his wudu’. In addition, he is prohibited from reciting al-Qur’an or staying in the masjid. The prophet, , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

لا يقرأ الجنب والحائض شيئاً من القرءان

which means: Al-Junub or the woman having menses cannot recite any of al-Qur’an (narrated by at-Tirmidhiyy). The prophet, , salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

إنى لا أحل المسجد لحائض ولا جنب

which means: I prohibit the woman having menses and the junub from straying in the masjid (narrated by Abu Dawud).

128. Question: What is prohibited for woman having menses or postpartum bleeding (bleeding after delivery or miscarriage)?

Answer: The woman having menses or postpartum bleeding is prohibited from what the junub is prohibited. In addition, she is prohibited from:

- fasting before the bleeding stops

- also the wife is prohibited from allowing the husband and the slave woman is prohibited from allowing her owner to enjoy the area between her navel and knees without a cover and before the ghusl.

129. Question: Is it required for the validity of as-Salah to have taharah from najas-filth?

Answer: It is required for the validity of as-Salah to have purification from un-exempted najas-filth.

One must be free of najas-filth in the clothes, body and the place which the one praying touches by his body. This condition is also required to be satisfied in the things that one carries while he is praying.

130. Question: What is the judgment if the najas-filth contacts one, his clothes or what one carries while being in prayer?

Answer: If the najas-filth was wet and it contacts one, his clothes or what one carries while being in prayer, the prayer becomes invalid. However, if the najas-filth was dry and so the clothes, the person throws this filth away immediately, and does that not with his hand or sleeve the prayer is not invalidated. On the other hand, if he did not throw it immediately, or threw it with his hand or his sleeve, the prayer is invalidated.

131. Question: What is detectable najas-filth (^ayniyyah) and how is it removed?

Answer: Detectable najas-filth is that filth whose color, taste or odor is readily noticeable. This filth is removed by removing its mass, taste, color and odor with purifying water.

132. Question: What is un-detectable najas-filth (hukmiyyah) and how is it removed?

Answer: Un-detectable najas-filth is that filth whose mass is not noticeable and one cannot detect its taste, color, and odor. It is like urine which became dry and its mass has disappeared. Further more, no color, taste or odor of it is detectable. This filth is removed by pouring purifying water over it once.

133. Question: How does one remove the najas-filth of a dog or pig?

Answer: The najas-filth of a dog is removed by washing the filthy spot 7 times one of which is mixed with purifying soil. This is so because of the hadith of the prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam:

طَهور إناء أحدكم إذا ولغ فيه الكلب أن يغسله سبع مرات إحداهن بالتراب

which means: If the dog licks the dish of one of you, let him wash it seven times one of which is mixed with soil (narrated by al-Bukhariyy, Abu Dawud and others). The pig is treated in a similar manner, because it is worse than the dog.

134. Question: Give an example for a najas-filth that is overlooked if one encounters it in prayer and an example of a non-exempted filth.

Answer: An example of an overlooked najas-filth is the blood of one’s own wound. An example of the un-exempted filth is the large amount of blood other than one’s blood.

135. Question: When is it a must that water be poured over the najas-filth rather than not doing so to clear the filthy place?

Answer: It is required to pour water over the najas-filth to remove it if water was a little amount, i.e., less than two qullahs. But a large amount of water- which is two qullahs or more- is not required to be poured over the najas-filth for purifying the filthy spot.

136. Question: State the conditions which have to be satisfied for the validity of the prayer?

Answer: The conditions for the validity of the prayer are: Islam, acknowledging the setting in of its time, facing al-Qiblah, at-tamyiz, sanity, not deeming one of its integrals optional, knowing that the prayer is an obligation, covering the unlawful nakedness (^awrah), and having purity from hadath and un-exempted najas-filth in body, place, clothes and what one carries. One has to satisfy these conditions for the validity of the prayer.

137. Question: What is meant by facing al-Qiblah in the prayer?

Answer: To face al-Qiblah in the prayer means to face al-Ka^bah. That is to face its body or what is above it all the way to the seventh sky or what is below it all the way to the seventh earth. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated that the prophet, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said after he had prayed towards al-Ka^bah:

"هذه القبلة", which means; This is al-Qiblah. Facing it will be fulfilled by directing to it one’s chest when one is praying in standing and sitting positions and directing to it most of one’s body in ar-ruku^ and as-sujud. It is not sufficient for one to face it by a part of his body while leaving another part not facing it.

138. Question: What is the judgment about one who prays without being sure that the time of the prayer has sat in.

Answer: One’s prayer is not valid by just imagining the setting in of its time, even if one prays during its time. One has to know that the time has sat in so that the prayer is valid.

139. Question: The prayer if one who is not in the state of mental discrimination (not mumayiz) is it valid?

Answer: No, the prayer of such a person is not valid, it is valid only from the one who is in the state of mental discrimination even if it was not incumbent upon him. It is incumbent on the guardian of the child to order the child to pray if the child has reached 7 lunar years. In that, the child will practice the prayer and become used to it. Both of them, the guardian and the child, will have reward for that.

140. Question: Speak with little details about covering the unlawful nakedness

(^awrah) of the man and woman during the prayer.

Answer: Among the conditions of the prayer is the covering of al-^awrah. The unlawful nakedness of the man is between the navel and the knees. The ^awrah of the female-slave during the prayer is like the ^awrah of the man. The ^awrah of the free woman is all her body except the face and her hands. The obligatory covering is fulfilled by covering from all sides but not necessarily from underneath.

141. Question: State some of the invalidators of the prayer.

Answer: The prayer is invalidated by:

- intentionally uttering what is considered to be of the speech of humans

- performing many moves or one move for playing

- eating or drinking

- the invalidation of wudu

- occurrence of un-exempted najas-filth in body, dress or what one carries

- apostasy (Riddah kufur)

- intending to interrupt the prayer

- intending to interrupt it if a matter occurs

- hesitating about interrupting it

- the completion of one integral while being in doubt whether the intention for the prayer was done or not, or doubting for a long time about the intention of the prayer

- performing an excessive move

- turning one’s chest away from al-Qiblah

- and the uncovering of the unlawful nakedness.

142. Question: What is the judgment of talking while praying?

Answer: If one utters the speech of humans remembering he is in the prayer, his prayer is invalidated. This is so, even if he utters two letters or a one meaningful letter. For example, if one says Qi, ^i or Fi, the prayer is invalidated. If one forgets he is in salah and utters a little of the speech of the humans, the prayer is not invalidated. Remembering Allah in as-Salah does not invalidate it even if it was uttered intentionally.

143. Question: What is the judgment if one moves while praying?

Answer: If one moves while one is praying and these moves are many moves whose time takes as long as it is needed to finish one rak^ah, then the prayer is invalidated. Some said that three consecutive moves invalidate the prayer. What is less than these moves does not invalidate. Similarly, performing an excessive move, or one move for the sake of playing invalidates the prayer.

144. Question: What is the judgment on eating and drinking during the prayer?

Answer: Eating or drinking invalidates the prayer even if this was a little, if the person remembers that he is praying. However, a little eating and drinking while the person does not remember he is praying does not invalidate the prayer.

145. Question: If the person intends to interrupt the prayer or made that contingent upon the occurrence of an incident, or hesitated about that, then what are the related judgments for these cases?

Answer: If the person has intended to interrupt the prayer, or made that contingent upon an issue or hesitated in that, then his prayer will be invalidated immediately.

146. Question: What is the judgment if an integral of the prayer was completed while the person had a doubt whether he made the intention for the prayer or not, or the time for doubt persisted for a long time?

Answer: If one completes an integral, like he recited al-Fatihah, and one still doubts whether the intention for the prayer was done or not, the prayer is invalidated. Similarly, the prayer is invalidated if the time of doubt has persisted for a long time, even though one integral has not been completed yet.

147. Question: What are the conditions for a rewardable prayer?

Answer: Other than the conditions for the validity of the prayer there are conditions for the prayer to be rewardable.  The conditions which have to be satisfied so that the person who prays gains reward for his prayer are:

  • · To perform the prayer for the sake of Allah only.
  • · One’s food, clothes and place of worship have to be halal.
  • · To have fear from Allah in one’s heart (to have khushu^).

148. Question: If one prays and sought in his prayer to have the praise of people. What is the judgment pertaining to this issue?

Answer: If one intends by praying to gain the praise of other people, that is, he intends others to praise him, his prayer is valid but without reward. He has also committed the sin of ar-riya’ which is an enormous sin.

149. Question: If one’s food was haram, or his clothes or the his place of worship was also haram, then what is the judgment on his prayer?

Answer: If one’s food, clothes or place of worship was haram, then the prayer of one has no reward. For example, if one prays in a house which he took unlawfully by force, his prayer is without a reward.

150. Question: What is the meaning of al-khushu^?

Answer: Al-khushu^ is to remember fearing Allah in the heart. One’s reward for one’s prayer will increase as much as the time of khushu^ increases during this prayer.  On the other hand if one does not have khushu^ at all, even for one moment during the prayer, one does not get any reward for this prayer.

151. Question: State the integrals of the prayer.

Answer: The integrals of the prayer are 17 integrals. These are: 1- Intention while performing the opening Allahu Akbar, 2- The opening Allahu Akbar, 3- Standing up during the obligatory prayer for the one who is capable, 4- Reciting al-Fatihah, 5- Ar-Ruku^, 6- To let one’s bones settle while doing it- (at-tuma’ninah), 7- Erecting oneself completely, 8- At-tuma’ninah, 9- To make sujud twice, 10- At-tuma’ninah, 11- Sitting between the two sujud, 12- At-tuma’ninah, 13- To sit for the last tashahhud and what come after that, 14- To recite the last tashahhud, 15- To say as-salatu ^ala-n-Nabiyy while sitting, 16- To say the closing salam, and 17- To observe the order.

152. Question: What are the verbal integrals of the prayer?

Answer: The integrals of saying of the prayer are five; 1- The opening Allahu Akbar, 2- Reciting al-Fatihah, 3- The last tashahhud, 4- As-salah ^ala an-Nabiyy, and 5- Saying the closing salam. The one who is praying has to hear himself while saying these integrals.

153. Question: What is the judgment on one who prays sitting down while one is able to stand up?

Answer: If the person who is able to stand up prays the obligatory prayer sitting down, his prayer is not valid. If he cannot stand up because of a hardship that he cannot tolerate, then he may pray the in the sitting position. On the other hand, one may pray the optional prayer sitting down even though he is able to stand up and pray, but in this case, he will have half of the reward of the one who stands up and pray.

154. Question: How would the intention for the prayer be valid?

Answer: The intention is valid by remembering it in the heart at the time when one makes the opening Allahu Akbar. One then intends in his heart to perform the prayer and its cause, if it has one, like the Funeral (Janazah) prayer. He also remember its time, if it has a special one, like the prayer of ad-duha. One also intends the obligation for the obligatory prayer. An example of that: “I pray the obligatory dhuhr prayer”.

155. Question: How would the recitation of al-Fatihah be valid?

Answer: Al-Fatihah has to be recited starting with Bismillahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim. One has to avoid interrupting reciting its word by more than taking a breath and one arranges it so that he does not recite one part of it before the other. One also has to articulate the letters from their vocal exits and avoid any error in the pronunciation (lahn) which breaches the meaning. For example, one may not recite instead of na^budu: na^badu. If he deliberately recites it like that, the prayer is invalidated. If his tongue slips by reciting the wrong recitation, he has to re-recite that part correctly; otherwise, his prayer is invalidated. However, if he recites with an error (lahn), but does not breach the meaning, like reciting instead of na^budu: ni^budu, the prayer is not invalidated. This is on the condition that he does not deliberately recite with this recitation, or else if he is deliberate, his prayer is invalidated.

156. Question: What is the least of the permissible ruku^?

Answer: The least of the permissible ruku^ is to bend down so that the inner parts of hands reach one’s knees even if one did not put them on the knees. One takes in consideration for that a moderate person.. The one who prays sitting down moves his head down so that his forehead becomes above what is in front of his knees.

157. Question: What is erecting up from ruku^ (i^tidal)?

Answer: It is for the one who was making ruku^ to come back from ruku^ to the position which one was at before the ruku^.

158. Question: How would one perform as-sujud?

Answer: As-sujud is performed when the person praying puts one’s forehead on the ground while it is uncovered. One lets its weight rest on the ground. Also one makes sure that one’s lower part is higher than the upper part, while some of one’s knees, inner part of his hands and toes on the ground.

159. Question: What are the positions during which at-tuma’ninah is an integral of the prayer? And what is at-tuma’ninah?

Answer: At-tuma’ninah is an integral in ar-ruku^, erecting afterwards (i^tidal), as-sujud, and sitting between the two sujud. At-tuma’ninah occurs when all the organs are made motionless at once for as long as it takes to say: subhana-allah.

160. Question: What is the minimum tashahhud?

Answer: The minimum tashahhud is: At-tahiyyatu lillah, salamun ^alayka ayyuha-n-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh, salamun ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahi-s-salihin, ashhadu alla ilaha ill-allah wa anna Muhammada-r-Rasulullah.

161. Question: As-Salatu ^ala-n-Nabiyy is one of the integrals of the prayer. What is its minimum?

Answer: The minimum of as-Salatu ^ala-n-Nabiyy is for one to say: “Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad”.

162. Question: Is it sufficient for the validity of the prayer that one says: salamun ^alaykum?

Answer: No, it is not sufficient for the validity of the prayer for one to say: Salamun ^alaykum. It is sufficient for him to say: As-Salamu ^Alaykum, that is to end one’s prayer by the salam.

163. Question: Does one’s prayer become invalid if one misses the order?

Answer: Observing the order is one of the integrals of the prayer. The one who misses it intentionally, for example when one makes sujud before making ruku^, his prayer will be invalidated.

164. Question: If one forgets to make ruku^ what would one do?

Answer: If someone had forgotten ar-ruku^ then remembered it before reaching to a similar the ruku^ of the next rak^ah, then this person would go back to make the ruku^. For example, he made sujud and then remembered that he omitted the ruku^- from the rak^ah that he is still performing- he will then stand up immediately and make ruku^ then continue observing the order. However, if he did not recall missing the ruku^ until he has reached the ruku^ of the next rak^ah -or the raka^at after that, in this case he will then continue what he is doing, and make an additional rak^ah.

165. Question: Upon which individuals the congregational prayer (al-Jama^ah) is an obligation?

Answer: The Jama^ah prayer is incumbent upon the males, free, residing (muqimun), pubescent and un-excused. It is a collective obligation (fard kifayah). That is, if some of them perform the prayer in congregation, others do not have to perform it in jama^ah.

166. Question: Upon which individuals the Friday prayer is an obligation?

Answer: The Friday prayer is a personal obligation on every one of those who are obligated to perform al-Jama^ah (fard ^ayn). This is on the condition that they satisfy the following conditions: They are forty, accountable, inhabitants (mustawtinun) and living in buildings. The Friday prayer is an obligation also upon the men who intend to stay at their town for four whole days, not counting the two days of entry and departure. It is also an obligation upon that who resides outside the town but can hear the call of a person with a voice loud enough and situated at the town’s edge closest to him.

167. Question: What are the conditions for the validity of the Friday prayer?

Answer: The conditions for the validity of the Friday prayer are:

- The setting in of  the Dhuhr prayer time,

- two speeches before the prayer during the time for Dhuhr,

- to be performed in congregation by the forty aforementioned persons,

- and no other Friday prayer may be prayed simultaneously with it in the same town, if there is no need for that.

168. Question: If two Friday prayers, or more, are prayed simultaneously in one town because of an Islamicaly valid reason, would the two prayers be both valid?

Answer: Yes. If two Friday prayers, or more, are prayed simultaneously in one town because of an Islamically valid reason, the prayers are valid. An example of that would be a big town and it is not feasible for the people to meet in one place to pray Friday together. It is valid to set as many places for the Friday prayer as it is legitimately needed.

169. Question: How about if the Friday prayers are prayed simultaneously but for no valid need to do that?

Answer: In this case, that is if two Friday prayers are prayed simultaneously in one town for no reason and they were prayed simultaneously, then both are invalid. An example of that is a small town where it is facilitated for the people to meet in one place. On the other hand, if one of them preceded the other by its opening Allahu Akbar (i.e. was ahead of that of the other), then the preceding Friday is valid while the lagging one is not.

170. Question: What are the integrals of the two speeches in the Friday Prayer?

Answer: The integrals of the two speeches are:

- Praising Allah- by using the term of al-hamd.

- As-salatu ^ala-n-Nabiyy, salla-l-lahu ^alayhi wa sallam, for example he says: salla-l-lahu ^ala Muhammad.

- Ordering with at-taqwa (fulfilling the obligations and avoiding the prohibitions) for example he says: ittaqu-llah. These three requisites the speaker has to say in each of the two speeches.

- The speaker also has to recite an ayah which has a complete meaning in either the first speech or the second speech.

- he has to make du^a’ for the believers in the second speech, for example he says; Allahumma-ghfir lil-mu’minin

171. Question: If the one following the imam (ma’mum) and the imam (leader of the prayer) are praying in a masjid, is it required that the distance between them be 300 dhira^ or less?

Answer: No, if the ma’mum and the imam are praying in a masjid, it is not required that the distance between them is 300 dhira^ or less. However, if they were praying outside the masjid, this condition has to be satisfied.

172. Question: State the conditions for the validity of the two speeches.

Answer: For the validity of the two speeches several conditions have to be satisfied. The speaker has to be clear of the two types of hadath and the najas-filth in body, clothes, place and what one carries. He has to cover the ^awrah and stand up if he is able. He has to sit between the two speeches. He has to avoid interrupting between the integrals of the two speeches and between the two speeches and the prayer. In that, he does not pause a long pause after he finishes the speeches and before he starts the prayer. Moreover, he has to say the integrals of the two speeches in Arabic.

173. Question: What is the judgment on the simultaneity of the follower (ma’mum) with the leader of the prayer (imam)? What is also the judgment of the follower standing ahead of one’s imam?

Answer: If the follower is ahead of the imam in the position or in saying the opening Allahu Akbar, the follower’s prayer is invalid. Similarly, if the follower says the takbir simultaneously with the imam, the prayer is invalid. However, simultaneity in the integrals other than the opening Allahu Akbar is disliked (makruh). But it is sunnah for the follower to say amin while the imam is saying it.

174. Question: If the follower intentionally performs integral of action before the imam, would the follower’s prayer become invalid?

Answer: No, if the follower intentionally precedes the imam by an integral of action, his prayer is not invalidated. For example, this takes place when the follower makes ruku^ then stands up while the imam is still standing up. Although the prayer of the follower is not invalidated, the follower has committed by that an enormous sin.

175. Question: If the follower intentionally performs two complete integrals of action before the imam without an excuse, would the follower’s prayer become invalid?

Answer: Yes, if the follower intentionally performs two complete integrals of action before the imam without an excuse, the follower’s prayer becomes invalid. This is like when the follower makes ruku^, stands up and then starts to go to sujud while the imam is still standing up for reciting the Fatihah.

176. Question: If the follower intentionally lags behind the imam by two complete integrals of action without an excuse, would the follower’s prayer become invalid?

Answer: Yes, if the follower intentionally lags behind the imam by two complete integrals of action without an excuse, the follower’s prayer becomes invalid. An example of that is like when the imam makes ruku^, stands up and starts to go to sujud while the follower is still standing up before the ruku^  without an excuse. On the other hand, if the follower lags because of an excuse, such as he is still reciting the Fatihah, the follower’s prayer is not invalidated. This is true as long as the follower does not lag behind the imam for more than three long integrals of actions (i.e., after the end of the second sajdah in the previous example).

177. Question: Is it a condition for the follower to know about the movements of his imam?

Answer: Yes, it is among the conditions for correctly following the imam, that the follower knows about the movements of his imam. One then has to either see the imam, hears his voice, sees the one who sees the imam or hears the voice of the conveyor who conveys about the movements of the imam.

178. Question: If there was between the follower and the imam a barrier that prevents passing to the imam, is the prayer of the follower valid?

Answer: The prayer of the follower is not valid in this case if there was a barrier between him and the imam. This barrier prevents passing to the imam or seeing him like in a case of a wall or closed door.

179. Question: In the case when the follower disagrees with the imam in a sunnah which is considered as enormous disagreement, would the follower’s prayer be invalidated?

Answer: Yes, in such a case the follower’s prayer is invalidated, on the condition that the follower knows about this judgment and has done that intentionally. The example for that is when the imam leaves the first tashahhud, but the follower intentionally sits and says it knowing the prohibition of such an action. In this case, the follower’s prayer is invalidated, since he quits following the imam- an action obligatory on him to satisfy.

180. Question: Is it an obligation on the follower to intend following the imam in the Friday prayer and other prayers? When does the follower have to fulfill this obligation?

Answer: The follower has to intend following the imam in the Friday prayer while saying the opening Allahu Akbar. He has to do that also in the repeated prayer and the joined prayer for reason of rain. In other than these prayers, it is required that the follower intends to follow the imam before following the imam in performing actions. The repeated prayer (Mu^adah) is the prayer which is repeated after being prayed correctly for the sake of another congregation. The joined prayer (majmu^ah) for reason of rain is when the ^Asr is prayed in the masjid with the Dhuhr at the time of Dhuhr because of rain, while other conditions are still satisfied. Also when the ^Isha is prayed with Maghrib for the same reason and at same conditions.

181. Question: Is it required upon the imam to intend to lead the prayer in the Friday prayer and in other prayers?

Answer: It is obligated upon the imam to intend leading the Friday prayer, the repeated prayer and the joined prayer for reason of rain. It is sunnah to intend leading the group in prayers in other than the afore mentioned.

182. Question: What is incumbent upon the Muslims when a Muslim dies after being born alive?

Answer: It is a collective obligation (fard kifayah) upon the Muslims to wash, shroud, pray for, and bury the Muslim who died after one was born alive.

183. Question: What is the obligation to be fulfilled for a person who is a dhimmiyy if he dies?

Answer: It is obligatory that he is shrouded and buried. It is not permitted to pray for him. If he did not leave any money behind, he is shrouded and prepared for burial at the expense of the Muslims’ treasury.

184. Question: What is obligated for the stillborn Muslim whose look is humanely, but did not exhibit the signs for life like screaming, for example?

Answer: He has to be washed, shrouded and buried. They do not pray for him.

185. Question: If someone dies in the battle field because of fighting the blasphemers, what is obligated for him?

Answer: The one who dies because of fighting the blasphemers has to be shrouded  and buried and it is not permissible to wash him or pray for him.

186. Question: What is the minimum of washing?

Answer: The minimum of washing is to remove the najas-filthiness if it was on the body of the dead person. Moreover, the body, skin and hair, has to be washed once with purifying water. The hair has to be washed even if it was thick.

187. Question: What is the minimum of shrouding?

Answer: The minimum of the shroud is what covers all the body. If one leaves an inheritance more than one’s debts, one will be shrouded with three sheets.

188. Question: What is the minimum of praying for the dead?

Answer: The minimum of praying for the dead is: To intend praying for the dead. An example for a valid intention is: “I pray the obligatory jinazah prayer for this dead. He then makes takbir by saying Allahu Akbar and recites al-Fatihah afterwards while standing up, if one is able. Then one makes takbir again and says: Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad. He makes takbir again and makes supplication for the dead person as to say: “Allahumma-ghfir lahu warhamhu” which means O Allah forgive this dead Muslim and have mercy for him or her.  Then one says: Allahu Akbar  As-salamu ^alaykum. In the prayer of Jinazah it is required to fulfill the conditions of a valid prayer.

189. Question: Mention the minimum of the obligatory burial for the dead Muslim. Mention also some of the optional actions (sunnahs) of burial.

Answer: The least of the burial is a hole dug in the ground which suppresses the dead’s smell and protects him from the wild animals. It is sunnah to dig the hole as deep as a moderate man’s height with his arms extended overhead and to widen the grave. It is an obligation to put the dead’s chest facing the Qiblah. It is sunnah to bury in a lahd (in the lowest part of the Qiblah’s wall of the hole) if the ground is strong, while if the ground is soft, the dead is laid on the ground of the hole.

190. Question: How to Pray Funeral Prayer (Salat al-Janazah) ?

The Funeral Prayer (Salat al-Janazah)

The minimum obligatory prayer for the dead is:

1. To intend to perform the obligatory Funeral Prayer for that dead person in particular, as one is saying the opening 'Allahu akbar'.
2. To stand while performing the Funeral Prayer, if one is able;
3. To recite the Fatihah;
4. To say Allahu akbar;
5. To say Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad;
6. To say Allahu akbar;
7. To supplicate Allah to forgive and have mercy on that dead Muslim;
8. To say Allahu akbar;
9. To say the closing salam.

The one who performs the Funeral Prayer must satisfy the conditions and avoid the invalidators of prayer.

 

And Allah knows best.