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A Handbook on Hajj (Pilgrimage) The Journey of a Lifetime

Allah , the Exalted, Said: وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً

This Ayah means: “Allah obligated people, who are able, to perform pilgrimage(Hajj) to Makkah”

“The warmth of the sun spreads across the desert.  An excitement fills the air.  A blanket of people, clothed mainly in white, covers the land.  Islamic praises pound in the ears, drumming out the realization one has arrived at the site so many pious Muslims have gathered in throughout the generations………….." Excerpt from article titled: A Perspective on the Pilgrimage

The Pilgrims answer the call for Hajj by a resounding voice of submission:

لبيك اللهم لبيك لبيك لا شريك لك، لبيك، إنّ الحمد والنعمة لك والملك، لا شريك لك


O Allah, I obey Your Order.
I obey You one time after the other.
O Allah, I obey Your Order.
You are the One
Who does not have any partner.
I obey You one time after the other.
You are the One Who deserves
to be praised and thanked,
Every endowment is from You.
You are the One attributed
with Dominion.
There is no partner with You.


About Hajj
To perform Hajj means to go to the Ka^bah at a particular time with the intention to perform there the specific known actions which Allah ordered to be done in performing this worship.

The scholars hold the consensus that performing Hajj is an obligation on the Muslim who is able, free, and accountable. Allah said in Surat al-Baqarah, Ayah 196: { وأتموا الحج والعمرة لله }

This verse means: [Perform Hajj and ^Umrah completely in obedience to Allah.]

Performing Hajj is among the matters of the Religion known by the Muslim scholar and layman alike, therefore the one who denies its obligation blasphemes. However, the one who does not deny its obligation, but delays performing it until one dies, although one is able to do so, does not blaspheme. Rather, one commits an enormous sin. The scholars hold different opinions as to the obligation of performing ^Umrah.

Imam Malik judged the ^Umrah as sunnah. Imam ash-Shafi^iyy said it is an obligation, as Hajj is an obligation.

Allah gave Hajj a merit which prayer, Zakah, and fasting do not have. This merit is that if one performs Hajj in a manner which is accepted to Allah, then that Hajj would erase all one’s sins--both the small and the enormous ones. Al-Bukhariyy narrated the sahih hadith of the Prophet:

من حجَّ فلم يرفث ولم يفسق خرج من ذنوبه كيومَ ولدته أمه
It means: “The one who performs Hajj and while muhrim refrains from sexual intercourse or committing enormous sins, then one will be as clear of one’s sins just as one was clear of sins when one’s mother gave birth to one.” Although performing the Obligatory Prayers is more rewardable, performing Hajj has this specific merit. Performing Hajj is one of the five most important matters of Islam. In the famous hadith known as the Hadith of Jibril, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

بنى الإسلام على خمس شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأنّ محمداً رسول الله، وإقام الصلاة، وإيتاء الزكاة، وحج البيت، وصوم رمضان
It means: “The most important matters of Islam are five: Testifying that no one is God except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, performing Prayers, paying Zakah, performing Hajj, and fasting Ramadan.”


Who is Obligated to Perform Hajj

Performing Hajj and ^Umrah once in a lifetime becomes obligatory upon the Muslim when he is free, accountable, and can afford to reach Makkah and return to his homeplace. This includes that one has in excess of one’s debts, appropriate lodging and clothing, and what one is obligated to spend on those whom one must support from one’s departure until one return.

The conditions which make one obligated to perform Hajj are:

1. To be Muslim: Like all other worships, performing Hajj is not valid from a blasphemer. It is not demanded from the able blasphemer to perform Hajj. However, one will be punished for not doing so in the Hereafter. Rather, it is an obligation on one to first become Muslim, then, if able, to perform Hajj.

2. To be accountable: Although the non-pubescent child is not obligated to

perform Hajj--should he do so, it is a valid, rewardable worship. Hajj performed by even a one-day old child is valid through his guardian, who helps him perform the integrals and requisites of Hajj. Hajj is valid from the child who attained to the age of tamyiz , but is not yet pubescent, if he has the permission of his guardian (waliyy), and he performs the required actions by himself.

3. To be sane: Performing Hajj is not an obligation on the insane person.

4. To be free: Performing Hajj is not an obligation on the slave.

5. To be able: A person is considered ‘able’ to go to Hajj if he can afford to reach Makkah and return to his homeplace. As well, he must have what exceeds his debts, (even if they are not due yet, or if they are pertaining to rights of Allah, such as an unpaid expiation or Zakah), appropriate lodging and clothing for himself, and what he is obligated to spend on those whom he must support (such as his wife, non-pubescent children, slaves, poor parents, and the like), from his departure until his return.

Though not an obligation on him, Hajj is valid from the poor man. However, whoever leaves out performing a matter which is obligatory on him (like supporting his family with the obligatory support) to go to Hajj is sinful.

The one who believes he will not be secured from being killed or robbed on the way to Hajj is not obligated to perform it.

For Hajj to be an obligation on the woman, it is a condition that she can find

someone to accompany her--either a mahram  (even one she must pay, if she can afford to do so), a husband or the like, then trustworthy women, or one trustworthy adult woman, or a trustworthy female who is about to turn adolescent. If she cannot  find any of these, she is permitted to go to Hajj alone, i.e., to perform Hajj for the first time after puberty, although it is not an obligation on her to do so. However, she is not allowed to travel alone after that time. A mahram or the like has to accompany her. She is not allowed to travel alone without a mahram to visit the grave of the

Prophet  . Doing so is not a rewardable act for her; rather, it is sinful.

If the person who is not physically able, because of old age or extreme sickness to leave his house to go to Hajj, is able to find someone to perform Hajj on his behalf, it is an obligation on him to assign one to do so. If he cannot find except one who asks to be paid for doing so, and he can afford it, he pays that one to perform Hajj on his behalf. It is a condition that the person, performing Hajj on behalf of another, must have already performed the obligatory Hajj for himself.

Integrals (Rukns),
Requisites (Wajibs),
and Prohibitions of Hajj


Integrals (Rukns) of Hajj
1. Intention; (made during the months of Hajj—Shawwal, Dhul-Qa^dah, and the first ten (10) days of Dhul-Hijjah).

2. Physical presence at ^Arafat; (for some time between the start of Dhuhr on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and the dawn of the following day. The best is to

combine between the day of the 9th and the eve of the 10th).

3. Tawaf; (performed after the middle of the eve of the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah).

4. Sa^y; (performed after a tawaf).

5. Shaving the head or trimming the hair; (after the middle of the eve of the 10th).

6. Observing the order; in performing most of these five (5) integrals.

Hajj has six (6) integrals (rukns): i.e., those matters which must be performed for Hajj to be valid and which, if not performed, cannot be replaced or corrected for by slaughtering. Some of these integrals have a very specific and limited time frame to perform them in. So, if one misses performing them in their time, then one’s Hajj is invalid and one cannot do anything to make it valid. These integrals are two (2): the intention and physical presence in ^Arafat. Three (3) others are due upon him and his

Hajj is not complete until he does them. These are: Tawaf, Sa^y, and shaving the head or trimming the hair.



Requisites (Wajibs) of Hajj

1. Establishing the intention of ihram before crossing the miqat;

2. Staying at night in Muzdalifah and Mina, according to a saying;

3. Throwing pebbles at Jamratul-^Aqabah during the ^Id day;

4. Throwing pebbles at the three (3) jamrahs during the Tashriq  3 days;

5. Performing the farewell tawaf.



Hajj has five (5) requisites: i.e., those obligatory actions which must be performed for Hajj. However, (unlike the integral) leaving out a requisite does not invalidate Hajj. Rather, the person is sinful and an expiation is due on him. The expiation due for not performing any one of these requisites is:



1. To slaughter a sheep and distribute its meat to the poor people in Makkah;

or, if unable,

2. To fast ten (10) days: three (3) while in Hajj and seven (7) after returning

to one’s hometown.







Prohibitions While in the State of Ihram



Eight (8) matters become prohibited on the one who establishes the intention to engage in Hajj or ^Umrah (becomes in the state of ihram). The first six (6) are small sins, requiring a specific expiation. The last two (2) are enormous sins, each requiring a different expiation.



1. To wear perfume;

2. To anoint the head or beard with oil, grease, melted honey wax, or the

like;

3. To remove (or cut) fingernails, toenails, or hair;

4. For the man to cover his head;

5. For the woman to cover her face or wear gloves;

6. For the man to wear clothes that are sewn or felted in a manner to

surround the body;

7. Sexual intercourse or its inviting actions;

8. To hunt an edible, wild, land animal.



The Intention for Ihram (Integral)

What one does to enter into the actions of Hajj or ^Umrah (become in the state of ihram).



The first integral step for the person intending to travel to Makkah to perform the Pilgrimage (Hajj) is to establish the intention in his heart to enter into the actions of Pilgrimage (Hajj or ^Umrah). It is this intention and not just donning the clothes of ihram which causes one to become in that state. Going into the state of ihram means intending to enter into the actions of Hajj or ^Umrah during which certain things are obligatory on one to do and certain other things are prohibited for one to do. Establishing this intention and going into the state of ihram must be done before the person crosses the miqat  , and may be done from one’s hometown. However, once the person establishes the intention and goes into the state of ihram, he must avoid all those things which are prohibited for him to do while in this state. Crossing beyond these miqats or what aligns with them before first entering into the state of ihram is unlawful (sinful) and requires an expiation. These miqats were established by the Prophet and depend on the person’s route of travel to Makkah. The miqat for the people coming by route of al-Madinah is Dhul-Hulayfah (Abar ^Aliyy), a location less then ten (10) miles outside the city of al-Madinah, where the pilgrim may wash, change his clothes, pray, and make the intention.

It is sunnah to perform a purificatory bath (ghusl) before making the intention to enter into the state of ihram and to put perfume on the body, but not on the clothes intended for wearing for the ihram. It is sunnah to wear white clothes, and either new ones or clean used ones. One must take care to refrain from wearing the clothes forbidden for him to wear once he becomes in the state of ihram. The man wears an izar (what covers the lower part of the body) and a rida’ (what covers the upper part of the body)—without either being sewn or felted to fit the body—like a huge towel or shawl. The man must take care also not to wear shoes sewn to fit the foot, rather he

wears shoes that uncover the toes and the back of the feet. The man may put on a belt to hold up his clothing or carry his sword. The woman may wear sewn clothes, and must cover all her ^awrah. She may not wear gloves to cover her hands though her sleeves may be long enough to do so. She may not cover her face with anything which touches the skin of her face.

Before one makes the intention of ihram it is sunnah to pray two (2) rak^ahs, with the intention of performing this sunnah for ihram, and to recite Surat al-Kafirun in the first rak^ah after the Fatihah, and Surat al-Ikhlas in the second rak^ah after reciting the Fatihah. Then, one faces the Qiblah and says to oneself: I now start the actions of Hajj, (I now engage in the actions of Hajj.)



دخلت فى عمل الحج



Then to say out loud:



O Allah, I now perform Hajj to obey You in answering Your order.



لبيك اللهم بحج



Then the man says the following statement out loud (the woman with a low voice). It is called the talbiyah: O Allah, I obey Your Order. I obey You one time after the other. O Allah, I obey Your Order. You are the One Who does not have any partner. I obey You one time after the other.



لبيك اللهم لبيك، لبيك لا شريك لك لبيك،

You are the One Who deserves to be praised and thanked. Every endowment is from You. You are the One attributed with Dominion.



إنّ الحمد والنعمة لك والملك،

There is no partner with You.

لا شريك لك



Then, one makes du^a’, asking Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, and to accept one’s deeds, grant one Paradise, and protect one from Hellfire. Then, one makes other du^a’ for oneself and for whomever one wishes. It is good to repeat the talbiyah often. Should one see something which one likes or something which one dislikes, one says:

I obey You (O Allah). Surely, the valued living (meaning the living which does not have any hardships) is the living in the Hereafter (in Paradise).



لبيك إن العيشَ عيشُ الآخرة

If one sees something which one likes, these words are reminders that the pleasures in Paradise are much, much more than the pleasures on Earth. Should one see something one dislikes, these words help one to be patient by occupying one’s mind in how to escape Hellfire and get to Paradise, where one would not be disturbed by such matters.



Entering Makkah



Upon entering the haram of Makkah, (the boundary lines of Makkah defined by Prophet Ibrahim) it is sunnnah to say:

O Allah, this is the place to which You granted a special status and made a place of safety.

اللهم هذا حرمك وأمنك

So protect me from Hellfire.

فحرمنى على النار

Give me safety from Your torture on the Day You resurrect Your slaves.



وآمنّي عذابك يوم تبعث عبادك

Make me one of Your waliyys and one of the people who are obedient to You.



واجعلني من أوليائك وأهل طاعتك

Upon reaching Makkah, it is sunnah to perform a purificatory bath (ghusl).

One needs to protect oneself from harming the people in the crowds in Makkah, because it is sinful to do so intentionally. Rather, one needs to act kindly towards others who might be crowding one.

When one first sees the Ka^bah, one raises one’s hands in du^a’ and says:

O Allah, increase the honor, greatness, nobility, and veneration of this place (the Ka^bah).

اللهم زد هذا البيت تشريفاً وتعظيماً وتكريماً ومهابة

O Allah, grant to the one making Hajj or ^Umrah, who glorifies and honors this place, more glory and generosity and higher status and endowments.



وزد من شرفه وعظمه ممن حجه أو اعتمره تشريفاً وتكريماً وتعظيماً وبراً



O Allah, You are the One Who is clear of all defects. And You are the One Who grants safety.  Usually, people have a great respect for the area of the haram of Makkah and avoid killing and committing injustice there. Even in the Era of Ignorance, they never fought there. Even if the person found the killer of his father inside the haram of Makkah, he would not kill him there. To do an injustice inside the haram of Makkah is more sinful than doing the same injustice outside of it.



اللهم أنت السلام ومنك السلام



O Allah, grant us safety from illnesses and defects.



فحينا ربنا بالإسلام



One makes any other du^a’ which one likes, asking Allah for things one is

interested in from the good issues of this world and the Hereafter. It was reported that the du^a’ the Muslim makes upon first seeing the Ka^bah is answered. Then, one enters the mosque with the right foot and says:

I start with the Name of Allah, Praise be to Him.



بسم الله والحمد لله

O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his Al and protect his nation from that which he fears for them.



اللهم صلّ على محمد وعلى آله وسلّم

O Allah, forgive my sins.

اللهم اغفر لى ذنوبى



Open for me the Gates of Your Mercy (Guide me to the ways in which I may earn Your Mercy).

وافتح لى أبواب رحمتك



Tawaful-Qudum (Sunnah)



When one first enters the Masjid al-Haram, it is sunnah to perform the Entering Tawaf (Tawaf al-Qudum) instead of tahiyyat al-masjid, i.e., instead of praying when one first enters the mosque, one circles the Ka^bah.

Tawaf is performed by circling the Ka^bah seven (7) times, keeping the Ka^bah to one’s left side, starting with the black stone, heading towards Hijr Isma^il . To perform tawaf, one must be clear of any ritual impurities (both minor and major) and be clear of najas-filth on one’s body or clothes or what one is carrying, as is the case when in the prayer. Should one lose wudu’, for example, one must reperform it, and continue the tawaf from where one lost wudu’. Tawaf must be performed inside the Haram Mosque, and outside the Ka^bah, which means outside the structure as it was originally built. Circling outside the mosque, like in the street, is not valid. One must take care not to cut inbetween the structure of the Ka^bah and Hijr Isma^il, because this was originally part of the Ka^bah as Prophet Ibrahim built it. Moreover, one cannot have any part of one’s body above the shadharwan, which is the rim at the base of the Ka^bah. Tawaf is valid if the person circles the Ka^bah walking (or crawling) on his own, while being carried by another, or while riding an animal. However, one must keep one’s left shoulder towards the Ka^bah. So, if for any reason, the person turns, then takes a few steps while his shoulder is not towards the Ka^bah, he must go back to the place to continue from where he turned. If there is a crowd, and he cannot back up, he continues with that round until he comes back again to that place from where he turned, and continues from there, and the round he just performed to get back to that place is not considered.

It is a recommended matter to kiss the black stone, (a stone originally from Paradise which is now part of the Ka^bah) or if one cannot reach it, to raise one’s hand towards it (when one passes by it). It is a recommended matter to make supplication and dhikr while making tawaf. The best is to say what the Prophet used to say the most while performing tawaf:

Our Lord, give us good things in this life, and good things in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torture of Hellfire.



اللهم ربنا آتنا فى الدنيا حسنة وفى الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار



One leaves the mosque, stepping out with one’s left foot first and says:



I start with the Name of Allah. Praise be to Him.



بسم الله والحمد لله

O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his Al and protect his nation from that which he fears for them.



اللهم صلّ على محمد وعلى آله وسلّم

O Allah, forgive my sins

اللهم اغفر لى ذنوبى



Open for me the Gates of Your Generosity (Guide me to the ways in which I may earn Your Generosity ).

وافتح لى أبواب فضلك

Sa^y (Integral)

Walking between the mounts of Safa and Marwah is one of the integrals of Hajj. Originally, Safa and Marwah are two small mounts which are adjacent to the structure of the Haram Mosque, one at either end of the long hallway where one performs the Sa^y. The valley that existed between these two mounts was filled at one point in time. Hence, it is not there anymore.

The Sa^y must be performed after completing a tawaf (whether integral or sunnah). Ritual purity is not a condition for the validity of Sa^y. One must walk seven (7) times between Safa and Marwah. One starts at Safa, making sure that one is behind the mark indicating the original beginning of the mount and proceeds to Marwah, again making sure to reach the mark indicating the original beginning of the mount. This is considered one (1) round. Returning from Marwah to Safa is the second round. One may stop and rest during the walking, it is not a condition that one does not stop. The seventh (7th) round will end at Marwah.



Physical Presence at ^Arafat (Integral)
The area of ^Arafat is located approximately twelve (12) miles east of Makkah. One must be physically present at any location in ^Arafat sometime (even for just a moment) between the zawal (after the sun crosses the middle of the sky towards the west) of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and the dawn of the 10th. This is a specific time for being present there. If one misses the time, one misses Hajj. The Prophet   said:


الحج عرفة
It means: “ The greatest integral of Hajj is one’s presence in ^Arafat.”


One can be standing, sitting, or carried, awake or asleep, or even just passing

through without stopping. Being clear of the ritual impurities is not a condition for the validity of the integral of being at ^Arafat. Hence, the physical presence of a menstruating woman or a junub person is valid.

Some scholars said that it is a good, rewardable matter for one, on the way to

^Arafat, to say: O Allah, to You I direct my worship. O Allah, the Exalted, I do my act of obedience only for Your sake.
اللهم إليك توجّهت ولوجهك الكريم أردت

So make my sins forgiven, and my Hajj an accepted one.
فاجعل ذنبي مغفوراً وحجي مبروراً

Do not make me a loser. You have the Power over everything.
ولا تخيّبني إنك على كل شىء قدير


It is a good, rewardable matter for one on the way to ^Arafat to repeat the talbiyah a lot. It is sunnah to perform the purificatory bath (ghusl) before standing at ^Arafat. One goes to ^Arafat after the zawal and stay there until after maghrib. It is sunnah for one to combine the Noon Prayer (Dhuhr) and the Mid-Afternoon Prayer (^Asr) and pray them together at the time of the Noon Prayer. At ^Arafat, it is better for the man to stand in the place the Prophet used to stand, that is at the large rocks at the base of Mount Rahmah, and for the women to stand at its edges, so that they do not crowd the men. It is sunnah to be in the state of taharah while present at ^Arafat, and to face the Qiblah, feeling the fear of Allah in one’s heart and having it free from being concerned with the worldly matters. One repeats often:

No one is God but Allah. la ilaha illallah .
لا إله إلا الله

Allah is clear of all non-befitting attributes. subhan Allah
سبحان الله

Allah has the greatest status of all. Allahu akbar
الله أكبر

May Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and protect his nation from that which he fears for them.

sall-allah-u ^ala Sayyidina Muhammadiwwa sallam
صلى الله على سيدنا محمد وسلم


As well, one asks for forgiveness from Allah, makes a lot of du^a’, and recites Qur’an, especially Surat al-Hashr.

One repeats often the dhikr: No one is God except Allah, Who has no partner. He is the One attributed with Dominion. He is the One Who deserves to be thanked and praised. He has Power over everything.



لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شىء قدير
One should use this opportunity to make a lot of du^a’--starting by thanking and praising Allah, (al-hamdu lillah), and asking Him to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad   and to protect his nation from that which he fears for them (sall-allahu ^ala Muhammadiwwa sallam). One ends the du^a’ the same way.

Staying at Muzdalifah (Requisite/Sunnah)
Leaving ^Arafat, the pilgrim then heads towards Muzdalifah, repeating the talbiyah. It is sunnah to pick the pebbles to throw at the jamrahs from Muzdalifah that night, the best being ones the size of a chick pea, as al-Bukhariyy related from the Prophet. The one who intends to stay the third night of tashriq in Mina picks seventy (70) pebbles, and the one who wants to leave before the maghrib of the second day picks forty-nine (49). It is sunnah to stand facing the Qiblah and to make a lot of du^a’, often repeating the du^a’ most said by the Prophet: Our Lord, give us the good matters in this life, and good things in the Hereafter and protect us from the torture of the Hellfire.

اللهم ربنا آتنا فى الدنيا حسنة وفى الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار
The pilgrim stays that night in Muzdalifah. At dawn of the ^Id day, one goes to Mina to throw the pebbles at the pillar of al-^Aqabah, the greatest jamrah. One does not have to wait until the dawn to throw the pebbles there, rather it is valid to do so after the middle of the ^Id night. However, it is a condition to throw the pebbles one by one, by one’s own hand, and that they land in the specified basin. It is sunnah to say “Allahu akbar” while throwing each pebble. After throwing the pebbles on the day of the ^Id, it is sunnah for the pilgrim to slaughter an animal in Mina and distribute its meat to the poor people of Makkah. This animal can be a sheep or even a camel.



Shaving the Head or Trimming the Hair (Integral)
After Muzdalifah and Mina men shave their heads or trim their hair. This may bed one before throwing the pebbles at Jamratul-^Aqabah. The time for shaving the head or trimming the hair starts by (after) the middle of the ^Id eve. However, it is sunnah to shave or cut on the day of the ^Id. It is better to do it after sunrise and before performing the integral of tawaf and sa^y. Before that time, it is prohibited for those performing Hajj to remove even one hair from their bodies. (See Prohibitions.) The least of the obligation of shaving the head or trimming the hair is to shave or trim three hairs from the head. It is sunnah for the bald man to run the razor over his head. For the man, shaving the whole head is better than just cutting the hair. This is known from the hadith of the Prophet related by al-Bukhariyy.

When the Prophet made du^a’ that Allah forgive those who shave their

heads in the Hajj, some people asked, “What about those who just trim

their hair?” The Prophet again made du^a’ for those who shave their

heads. Twice again they asked, “What about those who trim their hair?”

Then the Prophet made du^a’ for both those who shave and those who

trim their hair. The woman does not shave her head, rather she trims her hair. It is sunnah that she cuts from all sides of her head.



Tawaful-Ifadah   (Integral)

It is not valid to perform this integral of tawaf except after the middle of the night preceding the ^Id day, whether before throwing the pebbles at the pillar of al-^Aqabah or after it, and whether before shaving or after it. It is better to perform this tawaf after throwing the pebbles at Jamrat al-^Aqabah and after shaving or trimming the hair. Among the conditions for the validity of this tawaf is to be pure from all the ritual impurities and to be clear from the unexempted najas-filth. One must also cover the unlawful nakedness (^awrah), as in prayers. The woman who is in her menses delays performing this tawaf until she is clear of her menses and has performed the obligatory purificatory bath (ghusl). It is not permissible for her to leave out

performing this integral tawaf. Tawaf is performed by circling the Ka^bah seven (7) times, starting with the black stone, heading towards Hijr Isma^il, keeping the Ka^bah to ones left side all the time. Turning only one’s head from side to side, without turning the shoulder does not affect the validity of the tawaf. If one doubts about the number of circles completed, one takes by the least number one is sure one completed, as one does for the number

of rak^ahs in prayer. It is sunnah to perform tawaf by walking, but it is permissible to do so while riding an animal or being carried. The pilgrim makes his own personal du^a’ during the different rounds around the

Ka^bah, asking Allah for matters which he likes pertaining to the religious matters or the worldly matters--for himself, for whom he likes, and for the Muslims in general. It is also good to occupy one’s time of tawaf by reciting the Qur’an. It is sunnah for the man to walk quickly with a short stride in the first three (3) rounds. Women walk with a normal pace and a normal stride. Also sunnah for the man--in all the rounds--is to bring the rida’ (what he wears to cover the top part of his body) from underneath the right armpit and to hang it over the left shoulder. It is sunnah for the women to wear the jilbab over their ihram clothes. The jilbab is a rida’ which covers the head, neck, chest, and back. Sometimes it might reach the ankles, and sometimes it might be shorter. After finishing tawaf, it is sunnah to pray two (2) rak^ahs.



Staying at Mina

and Throwing the Pebbles

on the Days of Tashriq

(Two Requisites)




The evening after the ^Id, the pilgrim goes to Mina and spends the night there. The next day is the first of the Tashriq days. After the zawal time of the first Tashriq day, the pilgrim goes to throw seven (7) pebbles at each of the three (3) jamrah stations. He starts with the smallest station, named as-Sughra, which is the pillar next to Masjid al-Khayf, and throws seven (7) pebbles there. Then he goes to the middle one (al-Wusta) and throws seven (7) pebbles there. He ends with the largest (al-^Aqabah or al-Kubra) and throws seven (7) pebbles there. Mixing up this order invalidates every throwing that does not comply with it. For example, if one throws the pebbles first at the ^Aqabah station, then the middle station, then the Sughra station, only the last throwing is valid and one needs to repeat throwing the pebbles at the middle and the largest stations. The jamarah stations in Mina are circular basins with pillars as markers. They are not the residence of the devil as some people think. Rather, we throw pebbles in these locations, as Prophet Ibrahim threw pebbles at the devil in these locations when he

appeared and tried to block Ibrahim from performing the order of Allah to slaughter his son, Isma^il. Throwing the pebbles signifies that if the devil appears to us as he did to Prophet Ibrahim, we will reject and degrade him.

At each pillar-station one throws seven (7) pebbles, by one’s own hand, one by one, making sure that they land in the specified basin. It is sunnah to say “Allahu akbar” while throwing them. It is not permissible for one to authorize another to throw the pebbles on one’s behalf except if one is unable (for a valid excuse) to do so before the end of the third Tashriq day.

On the second day of the Tashriq days, the pilgrim again throws pebbles at the three jamrahs, as he did the previous day. If he stays in Mina until the sun sets on the second day, it becomes an obligation upon him to throw the pebbles at the jamrahs on the third Tashriq day. It is permissible to delay throwing all the pebbles until the third day, as long as one performs that before sunset, and following the specified order. If one did not throw at

al-^Aqabah on the ^Id day, one would start there, throw seven (7) pebbles, then go to the smallest station and throw seven (7) pebbles. Next, one moves to the middle station and throws seven (7) pebbles there. Finally, at the largest (al-^Aqabah) one throws seven (7) pebbles. Then one returns to the smallest and repeats the order for the second round, and the same for the third round. All the pebbles must be thrown before the sunset of the third Tashriq day.



Performing ^Umrah
According to Imam ash-Shafi^iyy, it is an obligation on one to perform ^Umrah once in one’s lifetime if one is able. On the other hand, it is sunnah to perform ^Umrah often, especially in Ramadan. The one who performs Hajj may perform the ^Umrah immediately upon the completion of the Hajj. One has to go outside the boundary of Makkah’s Haram to make the intention to perform the ^Umrah. For example, one may go to the area called at-Tan^im, where ^A’ishah Mosque is, and there say in one’s heart:



نَوَيْتُ العمرةَ وَأحْرَمْتُ بِها للهِ تعالى
“I intend ^Umrah, and I now become muhrim with it.” When one makes this intention, or a similar one, then the matters which were prohibited while one was in the state of ihram for Hajj become again prohibited.

Then one returns to Makkah, circles the Ka^bah seven (7) times to perform the tawaf, then one performs the sa^y. Then the man shaves his head or trims his hair and the woman trims her hair to complete the integral actions of ^Umrah. Performing the actions in this order is itself an integral of ^Umrah.



Tawaful-Wada^ (Requisite/Sunnah)
According to one saying in the school of Imam ash-Shafi^iyy, after the pilgrim finishes the actions of Hajj or ^Umrah, one must perform Tawaful-Wada^. According to the other saying, performing this tawaf is sunnah.


Returning Home from the Hajj Trip
It is sunnah for the pilgrim who completed the Hajj and is returning to his

hometown to say: No one is God except Allah, Who has no partner. He is the One attributed with Dominion. He is the One Who deserves to be thanked and praised. He has Power over everything.



لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شىء قدير

We are going back to our hometown worshipping Allah, prostrating to Him, and thanking Him.
آيبون عابدون ساجدون لربنا حامدون،



He is the One Who fulfilled His promise and gave victory to His slaves,



صدق وعده، ونصر عبده



and He alone defeated the allied blasphemers.



وهزم الأحزاب وحده



The State of Ihram:

Prohibitions and Expiation





1.To use perfume;



It is sinful for the man or woman to use perfume after entering into the state of ihram, although, it is sunnah to do so prior to entering this state. Lady ^A’ishah reported that she used to put perfume for the Prophet before he made the intention to enter into the actions of Hajj and after he finished them. Using perfume means to put on the body, hair, or clothes, or to eat anything usually sought by the people for its good smell, like musk, sandalwood, rose oil, and the like. However, there are certain things which have a good smell, but are not considered perfumes. Examples are apples and cinnamon. These are edible. Carrying perfume on one’s person without wearing it is not sinful. Carrying a rose is not sinful. However, letting it touch one’s nose while smelling it is not permissible. Committing this prohibition requires an expiation. The expiation due for using scented products is either to slaughter a sheep and distribute its meat to the poor

people of Makkah, or to distribute three (3) sa^s (of wheat) to six (6) poor people (such that each receives one-half sa^, i.e., two (2) mudds), or to fast three (3) days.One has the choice to do any of the three matters.



2. To anoint the head or beard with oil, grease, melted honey wax, or the

like;



It is prohibited to anoint the head (the hair of the head) or beard with anything which might be called duhn (oils). It is not prohibited to rub unscented oils into the body or body hair, bald head, or face. The expiation due here is the same as for using perfumes.



3. To remove fingernails, toenails, or hair;



It is forbidden when in the state of ihram to remove fingernails or toenails or any hair whether this is by pulling them out, cutting them off, or otherwise. There is no sin or expiation due if one’s hair falls out by itself, not as a result of one’s own action. The expiation due here is the same as for using perfumes.



4. For the man, to cover his head;



The man is prohibited from covering his head or part of his head in Hajj with anything which is considered in the norm as a cover, even if it shows the color of his hair. A thin string or band is not considered normally as a cover for the head, nor is one’s hand. Holding an umbrella over one’s head is not considered an unlawful covering of the head, because in the norm an umbrella is not a head cover. The expiation due here is the same as for using perfumes.



5. For the woman to cover her face or wear gloves;



The woman in Hajj is prohibited from covering her face with anything that touches her skin. If she can manage to cover her face without having any cover actually touching her skin, it is not prohibited, and this is what the wives of the Prophet used to do because it was unlawful specifically for them to uncover their faces in the presence of marriageable men (ajnabiyys). Moreoever, the woman is prohibited from wearing gloves, although wearing long sleeves which cover her hands is not prohibited. The expiation due here is the same as for using perfumes.





6. For the man to wear clothes which are designed to surround the body via

sewing or felting;



The man is prohibited to wear clothes meant to surround the body via sewing or felting. Rather, the man covers his ^awrah by using a wrap-around (an izar or the like). Also, he does not wear shoes that are sewn to give them the shape to fit the foot, rather he wears shoes that show the toes and the back of the feet. The man may put a belt on to hold up his clothing or carry his sword. The expiation due here is the same as for using perfumes.



7. Sexual intercourse or its inviting actions;



It is prohibited for the muhrim to perform sexual intercourse or its inviting actions, while in the state of ihram. If the man was in the state of ihram, and his wife was not, it is forbidden for her to enable her husband to have sexual intercourse with her, or any of its inviting actions. The inviting actions are like the kiss which involves desire, looking with lust, or touching with desire. Performing sexual intercourse before the first tahallul invalidates one’s Hajj. Although one’s Hajj is invalidated, one must continue with the actions of Hajj, pay a kaffarah expiation, and re-perform the Hajj  immediately the next year, if one is able. If one is not able, the re-performance of the Hajj will be an obligation whenever one

is able until one completes it. The kaffarah due on the one who invalidated one’s Hajj by sexual intercourse is to slaughter a camel and distribute its meat to the poor people of Makkah. If one cannot find a camel, then one slaughters a cow. If one cannot find a cow, then one slaughters seven (7) sheep. If one cannot, one distributes mudds of wheat equaling the value of

the camel to the poor people of Makkah. If one cannot, one fasts one day for each mudd-value of the camel.

If one performs sexual intercourse after the first tahallul, one is sinful and an

expiation (of using perfumes) is due, however, one’s Hajj is not invalidated. The first

tahallul occurs after one completes two (2) of three (3) matters:



1. the obligatory tawaf.

2. shaving the head or trimming the hair.

3. throwing the pebbles at Jamratul-^Aqabah.

The lustful look is sinful, but it does not require an expiation.

Similarly, it is not permissible to conduct a marriage contract for anyone in the state of ihram, whether for oneself or others. If performed, this marriage contract is not valid, however, no expiation is due.



8. To hunt an edible, wild, land animal;



It is prohibited for the muhrim to hunt the edible, wild land animal. However, the domesticated animal (like a sheep) which became wild is permissible to kill. Catching marine life is not prohibited, nor is it prohibited to kill the harmful animals like the snake, scorpion, etc.

The expiation due for killing the edible, wild, land animal is to slaughter whichever is most similar in form to the land killed animal from either a camel, cow, sheep, or goat. The meat is distributed to the poor people in Makkah, or the value of the animal which one needs to slaughter is paid in mudds of wheat to the poor people of Makkah, or one day is fasted for each mudd-value of the animal. Also, it is prohibited to take the milk, egg, feather, or hair of the edible, wild, land animal while muhrim. The expiation due on the one who does so is to pay, in wheat, the value of what one took to the poor people of Makkah. Hunting in the two specific zones surrounding Makkah and al-Madinah is unlawful for the muhrim and the non-muhrim. The borders of al-Madinah are the two mountains: Mount ^Ayr and Mount Thawr. The borders of Makkah are well-known and were defined clearly by Prophet Ibrahim. It is prohibited to hunt any wild, edible, land animal inside those borders. It is also prohibited to cut or pull out the trees and plants of Makkah, al-Madinah, and Wajj valley in Ta’if. An expiation is due on the one who hunts the wild, edible, land animals or pulls the plants of Makkah.



Prohibitions While in the State of Ihram and Expiation Due if Committed



1. Using perfume.

2. Annointing the head or beard with oil,

grease, or melted honey wax.

3. Removing or cutting fingernails, toenails,

or hair.

4. Covering the head (for the man).

5. Covering the face and wearing gloves (for

the woman).

6. For the man to wear clothes designed to

surround the body via sewing or felting.

7. Sexual intercourse after the 1st tahallul

To correct for committing any one of these

seven (7) matters, one has the choice to do one

of the following three things:

1. To slaughter a sheep.

2. To distribute three (3) sa^s to six (6) people

(each one gets one-half sa^)

3. To fast three (3) days.

8. To hunt an edible, wild, land animal. (If

one takes the milk, egg, feather, or hair of

such animal, one has to pay its value in wheat

to the poor people of Makkah.)

To correct for committing this matter one has

the choice to do one of the following three

things:

1. To slaughter whichever is most similar in

form to the animal hunted-either a camel, cow,

sheep, or goat and to distribute the meat to the

poor people in Makkah.

2. To pay the value of the animal which

should be slaughtered in mudds of wheat to

the poor people of Makkah.

3. To fast one day for each mudd-value of the

animal

9. Conducting a marriage contract, and the

lustful look. Such marriage contract is

INVALID. The person is sinful. NO

EXPIATION IS DUE.

10. Sexual intercourse before the 1st

tahallul.**

If the person commits such a matter, his Hajj

is invalidated, although he must continue with

its actions. He must make the Hajj up the next

year.

Moreover, he pays a camel. If he cannot find a

camel, then a cow, and if he cannot then seven

(7) sheep.

If he cannot find any of these animals to pay,

then he pays an amount of wheat equal to the

value of the camel to the poor people in

Makkah, or else,

He fasts one day for each mudd-value of the

camel.

**The 1st tahallul occurs after one does two

(2) of three (3) things:

1. The obligatory tawaf

2. Shaving the head or trimming the hair

3. Throwing the pebbles at jamratul-^Aqabah



Visiting the Grave of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam



There is consensus among the scholars that it is sunnah to visit the grave of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, both for he who lives in al-Madinah and he who travels there for the express purpose of visiting the Prophet’s grave, and doing so is a great act of obedience. It is sunnah for the visitor to also have the intention to travel to pray in the mosque of the Prophet. Whoever travels to al-Madinah for this purpose should remember in his heart the great honor of the city of al-Madinah, and that it is the best city after Makkah. He should ask Allah to benefit him from this visit and to accept it as a worship from him. It is sunnah to perform the purificatory bath (ghusl) before entering al-Madinah and to wear one’s cleanest clothes. Upon entering the mosque of the Prophet, one says:





I enter with the Name of Allah. Praise be to Him.



بسم الله والحمد لله



O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his Al and protect his nation from that which he fears for them.



اللهم صلّ على محمد وعلى آله وسلّم



O Allah, forgive my sins.

اللهم اغفر لى ذنوبى



Open for me the Gates of Your Mercy (Guide me to the ways in which I may earn Your Mercy).



وافتح لى أبواب رحمتك



One enters the mosque with one’s right foot and exits with one’s left. One enters the mosque with the intention to go to the Rawdah  and pray Tahiyyatul-Masjid there next to the mimbar. Then, one moves to the grave of the Prophet and stands in front of it, about four (4) cubits away from it, facing it, with one’s back to the Qiblah. Standing there, one looks

to the ground, without thinking about the worldly matters, having one’s heart full with love and respect for the Prophet, who is buried there. One says in a medium (normal) voice:



As-salamu ^alayka; O Messenger of Allah.



السلام عليك يا رسول الله

As-salamu ^alayka; O Prophet of Allah.



السلام عليك يا نبي الله



As-salamu ^alayka; O the Best among the Creations of Allah.





السلام عليك يا خِيرَةَ الله





As-salamu ^alayka; O Beloved One of Allah.





السلام عليك يا حبيب الله



As-salamu ^alayka; O the One chosen by Allah.



السلام عليك يا صَفْوَةَ الله



As-salamu ^alayka; O you, the Master of the Messengers and the Seal of the

Prophets.



السلام عليك يا سيَّدَ المرسلين وخاتم النبيين



As-salamu ^alayka; O the Best of the entire creations.



السلام عليك يا خير الخلق أجمعين





As-salamu ^alayka; O Leader of those who are Ghurr and Muhajjalun  .



السلام عليك يا قائد الغرّ المحجّلين



As-salamu ^alayka; and to your good and pure Al (your pious followers), your family, your wives, and your companions.



السلام عليك وعلى آلك وأهل بيتك وأزواجك وأصحابك الطيبين الطاهرين





As-salamu ^alayka; and to the rest of the prophets and messengers.



السلام عليك وعلى سائر الأنبياء والمرسلين





May Allah reward you for what you did for us with the best reward that He ever gave a prophet or messenger for what he did for his nation.



جزاك الله يا رسول الله عنّا أفضل ما جزى نبيا ورسولا عن أمته

May Allah raise your rank every time a person remembers to mention you and every time another forgets to do so, because his mind is occupied with other matters.



صلى الله عليك كلما ذكرك ذاكر وغفل عن ذكرك غافل





May Allah raise your rank in the best, most perfect, and greatest way Allah raised the rank of anyone among the entire creation.



أفضل وأكمل وأطيب ما صلّى على أحد من الخلق أجمعين





I bear witness that no one is God except Allah, without any partner with Him.







I bear witness that you are the slave of Allah and His Messenger and the best

among His creations.



واشهد أنك عبده ورسوله وخِيرته من خلقه





I bear witness that you conveyed the Message and you fulfilled the trust with which Allah ordered you. And you truly advised your nation for the good matters.
واشهد أنك قد بلغت الرسالة وأدَّيت الأمانة ونصحت الأمة

And you performed jihad in the best way.
وجاهدت فى الله حق جهاده


O Allah, give Prophet Muhammad a high status, and give him a great merit, and enable him to intercede for the people on the Day of Judgment as You promised him. Give him the ultimate (among the good things) of what a person may ask You.
اللهم وآته الوسيلة  والفضيلة وابعثه مقاما محمودا الذى وعدته  وأته نهاية ينبغي أن يسأله السائلون



O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, Your slave and Your Messenger; the Ummiy  Prophet. May Allah raise the rank of his Al, his wives, and his descendants like Allah raised the rank of Ibrahim and the Al of Ibrahim. [O Allah, bless Muhammad, the Ummiyy Prophet, his Al, wives, and descendants, like you blessed Ibrahim and the Al of Ibrahim.

You are the One Who deserves to be praised for all the endowments You give. You are the Great, the Glorified and the Praised One.
اللهم صلى على محمد عبدك ورسولك النبي الأمي وعلى آل محمد وأزواجه وذريته كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم فى العالمين إنك حميد مجيد

The one who does not to memorize all this du^a’, or does not have time to say all of it can merely say “As-salamu ^alayka, ya Rasul-Allah.”
السلام عليك يا رسول الله


One should not leave that place without at least saying this.

Then, one moves one cubit to the right to say salam to Abu Bakr, saying:

As-salamu ^alayka, O Abu Bakr, the one chosen by the Prophet, and the other person who was with him in the cave.
السلام عليك يا أبا بكر
صفي رسول الله وثانيه فى الغار

May Allah reward you with a high reward for what you did for the nation of the Prophet.
جزاك الله عن أمة نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم خيراً

Then, one moves again to the right one cubit, and says salam to our Master ^Umar, saying: As-salamu ^alayka, O ^Umar, the one by whom Allah strengthened Islam.
السلام عليك يا عمر أعزّ الله بك الإسلام


May Allah reward you with a high reward for what you did for the nation of the Prophet.
جزاك الله عن أمة نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم خيراً

Then, one returns to the place where one first stood in front of the grave of the Prophet and makes tawassul  by the Prophet, asking Allah for what one wishes (by the status of) the Prophet. Then, one turns to face the Qiblah and makes du^a’ for oneself and for whomever one wishes. If a person had asked one to give his salams to the Prophet, let one say:

As-salamu ^alayka, O Messenger of Allah from (one names the person).
السلام عليك يا رسول الله من فلان

or (One names the person) gives his salam to you, O Messenger of Allah.
فلان يسلم عليك يا رسول الله





REMARKS

Be cautious! Do not take as an example what some ignorant people do next to the grave of the Prophet when they deviate from the aforementioned matter. One should follow the examples of the pious people and the knowledgeable pious scholars in this matter.

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadiyy narrated from al-Fudayl Ibn ^Iyad that he said: “Follow the ways of guidance. It will not harm you if the number of people following that way are few. Beware of the ways of misguidance. Do not be fooled by the large number of losers.”

It is disliked to wipe your hands or clothes on the walls surrounding the grave of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.



“The return trip home is a solemn, reflective time for many pilgrims.  The joy of completing the Pilgrimage (Hajj or ^Umrah) is satisfying but bittersweet .  The obligation is complete, but each Muslim must end that special event which has changed his life so profoundly.  There is an unsettling realization he may never return again to walk those spots the Prophet himself once walked.  The Pilgrim has earned the title of “Hajj” (m.) or “Hajjah” (f.)



The eyes of “the Hajj” and “the Hajjah” show what is in the heart. . .  the twinkle at the mention of the experience; the tears for the yearning to return once more."

Excerpt from article titled: A Perspective on the Pilgrimage