Al-hamdu lil-lah was-salatu was-salamu ^ala Rasulil-lah wa ^ala Alihi wasahbihi wa sallam
210.Q: Who is obligated to fast the month of Ramadan?
A: Every accountable Muslim who is able to fast has to fast Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan is not valid if performed by a menstruating or postpartum-bleeding woman. These women have to make up the days they missed.
211.Q: Count some of the excuses which permit one to not to fast in Ramadan.
A: It is permissible for a sick person, pregnant woman or breast-feeding woman who cannot tolerate the hardship of fasting to break the fast. Each one of those has to make up the missed day (Qada'). In addition, it is permissible for a pregnant and breast-feeding woman to break the fast if they are afraid for the fetus. However, they have to make up the missed day and pay a fidyah.
212.Q: Is it obligatory to make the intention for fasting before doing it? Is it obligatory to specify the fasting while making the intention? When must this happen?
A: Yes, one has to make the intention for fasting the next day and also specify for each day that he is fasting a day of Ramadan. One intends to fast at any time between after al-Maghrib and before the break of al-Fajr of the day of Ramadan. He says in his heart: I intend to fast the next day of Ramadan.
* Or In Arabic (Nawaytu Siyama Yami Ghadin Min Ramada - Imanan Wahtisaban Lillahi Ta^ala)
213.Q: What are the things from which the one who is fasting has to abstain?
A: The one who is fasting has to abstain from sexual intercourse, masturbation, intentional vomiting and apostasy (Riddah/Kufur). One also abstains from inserting anything with a volume (Even a sesame seed) into the body cavity through any of the body’s inlet, except one’s unmixed and pure saliva while it is inside the mouth.
214.Q: Does vomiting break the fast?
A: If one was overtaken by vomit, his fast is not broken. This is on the condition that the person did not swallow any of vomit or any of his filthy saliva while being able to avoid that. On the other hand, if the person induces vomit by his finger, for example, then he has broken his fast.
215.Q: Does the occurrence of insanity or losing consciousness on the day of Ramadan invalidate fasting?
A: If one becomes insane even for a moment, his fasting is invalidated. When one loses consciousness all the day of fast, his fasting becomes invalidated. However, sleeping the whole day does not invalidate fasting.
216.Q: What are the days on which fasting is not valid?
A: It is invalid and not permissible to fast the days of ^Id al-Fitr, ^Id al-’Adha and the three days of at-Tashriq. These are the three days that follow ^Id al-’Adha. One also is not allowed to fast the last half of the month of Sha^ban and the day of doubt. The day of doubt is when the hilal is sighted by non-trustworthy Muslims or women, for example. One may fast the last half of Sha^ban and the day of doubt if one fasts them joined with the days before them, or for making up missed days, or for fulfilling an oath, or a wird or a kaffarah.
217.Q: A person had a sexual intercourse on the day of Ramadan without an excuse. What is the judgment on that deed which he did?
A: One invalidates the fasting of a day of Ramadan by making a sexual intercourse, if done willfully, knowing it is prohibited to do so and remembering that he is fasting. He has committed a major sin and has to make up that day without a delay after Ramadan. He also has to perform a kaffarah which is: To free a Muslim slave who is not defective, if unable, he has to fast two consecutive lunar months, and if unable, he has to feed 60 miskin (poor) 60 mudd (two average cupped hands) of wheat or other grain.