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Rules on Fasting Ramadan

Allah made it obligatory upon every Muslim to fast the month of Ramadan. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ

Ya ayyuha-lladhina amanu kutiba ^alaykumus-siyam.
Ayah 183 of Suratul-Baqarah means: {He (Allah) made fasting obligatory upon you.}


Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha^ban in the second year after the immigration.

Fasting the month of Ramadan is a great obligation and among the most important matters of Islam. The Muslims look forward to this month because it is the month of goodness, obedience, and blessings. It is also the best month of the year, and in it is the best night of the year, that is, the Night of Qadr.

Fasting is abstaining from anything that invalidates the fast during the day, along with having made the intention during the night. It is an obligation upon every pubescent, sane, and able Muslim to fast. However, it is not valid from the menstruating and postpartum-bleeding women.

Fasting Ramadan becomes obligatory by one of two things:
1-       Finishing thirty (30) days of Sha^ban.
2-       Seeing the crescent of Ramadan on the thirtieth night of Sha^ban. This is due to the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam:

صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوا عِدَّةَ شَعْبَانَ ثَلاَثِينَ يَوْماً.
Sumu liru’yatihi wa aftiru liru’yatih(i). Fa’in ghumma ^alaykum, fa’akmilu ^iddata Sha^bana thalathina yawma.

Which means: "Fast upon seeing the crescent and break your fast upon seeing it. If you could not see the crescent because it was cloudy, then finish the whole thirty days of Sha^ban." (Related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)

The one who sees the crescent has to fast. Moreover, the one who does not see it, but is informed by a upright, trustworthy, free Muslim who does not lie is also obligated to fast.


Fasting has two integrals:

1-       The intention in the heart every day. One intends in his heart, for example: "I intend to fast tomorrow to fulfill the obligation of fasting Ramadan this year, faithfully and seeking the reward from Allah.”

The time of the intention is from sunset until the Fajr prayer begins.

2-       To abstain from anything that invalidates fasting, from the appearance of the true dawn to the sunset.

The invalidators of the fast are many. Among them:

1-       Eating, even if as little as a sesame seed and drinking, even if one drop of water or medicine, while remembering that one is fasting.

2-       Droplets in the nose or ear invalidate the fasting if the medicine reaches the cavity of the body. Likewise, the enema, and penile and vaginal douche. The eye drop, on the other hand, does not invalidate the fast. Similarly, hypodermic, intramuscular, and intravenous injections do not invalidate fasting.

3-       Losing consciousness for the whole day from Fajr to sunset. Also, losing sanity for one moment.

4-       Vomiting: Placing one's finger or what is similar down one’s throat to cause oneself to vomit invalidates the fast. If one involuntarily vomits and does not swallow any of it, then one’s fasting is not invalidated.

5-       Apostasy of any type: beliefs, actions, or sayings.


Whoever invalidates his fast by eating, drinking, or intentional vomiting is sinful. He is also obligated to make up the invalidated days immediately after Ramadan and the ^Id day. However, he is not obligated to pay money to the poor Muslims as expiation.



Note:
It is unlawful (haram) to fast the two days of ^Idul-Fitr and ^Idul-Ad-ha, and the three days after ^Idul Ad-ha, known as the days of Tashriq.

Supplication:
اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِكَ أَفْطَرْتُ

Allahumma laka sumtu wa^ala rizqika aftart.

Which means: O Allah, I fasted seeking your reward, and by your sustenance I break my fast.


Also, when he broke his fast the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, used to say:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَ الله

Dhahabadh-dhama’u wabtallatil-^uruqu wathabatal-ajru insha’ Allah.

Which means: “The thirst is gone. My veins are dampened and the reward has been earned, by Allah's will.” (Related by Abu Dawud.)

 

Allah knows best.