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THE ISLAMIC EDUCATION SERIES



Introduction

Praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. We ask Allah to raise the rank of our master Muhammad, the Prophet who did not learn to read or write, his Al, and Companions, and to protect his nation from whatever he feared for it.

Allah revealed in the Qur’an:

Which means: “O you who believed, protect yourselves and families from fire the fuel of which will be people and stones. In charge of this fire are stern and rough angels who do not disobey Allah and carry out what they are ordered.”

Our Prophet, may peace be upon him, said:

Which means: “Seeking the [obligatory] knowledge is an obligation upon every [accountable] Muslim.” (Related by al-Bayhaqiyy.)

Protecting one’s self and family from the unbearable fire is achieved by one learning the religious knowledge that Allah made an obligation upon every accountable person to acquire, and by teaching it to the family. One cannot be a pious Muslim when one does not fulfill the religious obligations and does not avoid the matters that Allah made forbidden.

The way to knowing the obligations and prohibitions is by acquiring the religious knowledge from those who have it. Hence, the guardian of the children must teach them the belief that Allah is clear of having any similarity to the creations and the obligatory and forbidden matters, such as teaching them the essential parts of taharah (purification) and salah (prayer).

In the present time of social decay, the religious education and raising of the children is not an easy matter, especially that most schools do not place such education as their top priority. There is no doubt that such education improves the welfare of the children and results in their well being in this life and the life after.

As a result, the Islamic Studies and Research Division (ISRD) embarked on preparing “The Islamic Education Series” (T.I.E.S.) for our children at the elementary level and for those who are at the beginner level in their Islamic education.

Each of the five (5) books in this Series consists of three (3) chapters that deal with: the Belief, the Acts of Worship, and the Islamic Manners. In addition to this Series, Qur’anic Recitation (Tajwid) and Prophetic Biography (As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah) are needed.

“The Islamic Education Series” (T.I.E.S.) is meant to prepare the beginners for the Islamic material that makes them successful servants of Allah. God willing, this knowledge will help them contribute to building communities based on sound values and will make them safe in the Hereafter.

The Publisher


Book Review by the University of Al-‘Azhar

Praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. We ask Allah to raise the rank of our Master Muhammad, the last prophet and messenger, his Al, Companions and followers, and to protect his nation from whatever he feared for it.

After reviewing “The Islamic Education Series” (T.I.E.S.) we state that it achieves its objective. It contains studies of the belief, acts of worship, and Islamic manners to instill in the young people the ideals and values of Islam. Moreover, the Series has a captive style and easy expressions along with exact statements.

We thank the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects and its Islamic Studies and Research Division for exerting efforts in preparing this curriculum. We ask Allah to make their work beneficial and blessed.

Dr. Abdul-Mahdiyy Abdul-Qadir Dr. Safwat Mubarak

Hadith Teacher ^Aqidah Teacher

Usulud-Din College Usulud-Din College

University of Al-‘Azhar University of Al-‘Azhar

Dr. Abdul-Mun^im Najm Wakil Dr. Muhiyid-Din As-Safi, Dean

Usulud-Din College Usulud-Din College

University of Al-‘Azhar University of Al-‘Azhar

_______________________________

Signed and sealed April 30, 1997



CHAPTER ON MATTERS OF BELIEF

LESSON 1

THE TWO TESTIFICATIONS OF FAITH

The Two Testifications of Faith are:

Ashhadu alla illaha illallah, wa ashhadu anna muhammadar-rasulullah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam[1].

It is obligatory upon one when embracing Islam to utter these Two Testifications of Faith immediately, believing in their meaning, with the intention to become a Muslim.

Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah means:

I know, believe in my heart, and declare with my tongue that nothing deserves to be worshipped except Allah. That is, no one deserves the ultimate humbleness except Allah, the Exalted.

Ashhadu anna Muhammadar-rasulullah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam means:

I know, believe in my heart, and declare with my tongue that our Master Muhammad, who is the son of ^Abdullah, the son of ^Abdul- Muttalib, the son of Hashim, the son of ^Abdu-Manaf, from the tribe of Quraysh, is the slave of Allah and His Messenger to all the humans and jinn, the Arabs and non-Arabs.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh, the most honorable tribe amongst all Arab tribes. He was born in Makkah, where he received the Revelation while in the cave of Hira. Then he immigrated to al-Madinah and was buried there. Prophet Muhammad is the last and best of all of the prophets and messengers, peace and blessings of Allah be upon them, and the highest in rank.

Thus, it is obligatory to believe in everything that Prophet Muhammad told about and conveyed from Allah, the Exalted.

Imam Dhun-Nun Al-Misriyy said, “Whatever you imagine in your mind, Allah is different from it.”


Questions:

1. What is obligatory upon one when embracing Islam?

2. What is the meaning of the first Testification?

3. What is the meaning of “No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah”?

4. What is the meaning of the second Testification?

5. Where was the Prophet born? Where did he receive the revelation?

6. To where did the Prophet migrate? Where was he buried?

7. What tribe is he from? To whom was he sent?


LESSON 2

THE FIRST OBLIGATION:

KNOWING ALLAH AND HIS PROPHET

Allah said in the Qur'an:

{Fa^lam annahu la illaha illallah} Surat Muhammad, Ayah 19.

This Ayah means: “O Muhammad, know (be steadfast) that no one is God except Allah.”

The first obligation upon mankind is to know Allah and His Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Knowing Allah is to know what attributes befit Him and what attributes do not befit Him; and also to know what is permissible to attribute to Him.

Allah has the Perfect Attributes that befit Him, such as Knowledge, Power, and Will. It is impossible that Allah would be attributed with: ignorance, weakness, and every attribute that is created, like the attributes of humans. Allah is the One Who makes creations exist (creates all creations). He is also the One Who makes things cease to exist (annihilates them).

The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

Afdalul-a^mali imanum billahi wa Rasulih.

Which means: “The best deed is to believe in Allah and His Messenger.” (Narrated by al-Bukhariyy.)

Al-Ghazaliyy said: "Deeds of worship are not accepted without knowing the worshipped.", i.e., without the proper belief in Allah.

Knowing the Prophet is by knowing what attributes must be attributed to him; and knowing what attributes are impossible to be his, and what is permissible to attribute to him.

One must believe that Prophet Muhammad was truthful, trustworthy, courageous, and intelligent. Moreover, he conveyed all that Allah ordered him to convey.

The Prophet is protected from lying, cheating, stupidity, cowardice, or committing blasphemy, enormous sins, or small mean sins before Prophethood and after it.

It is permissible to attribute eating, drinking, sleeping, and being married or the like to the Prophet.

This holds true for all the prophets.

The Attributes of Allah that every accountable person must know:

1. Existence (Al-Wujud)

2. Oneness (Al-Wahdaniyyah)

3. Non-neediness of others (Al-Qiyamu-bin-Nafs)

4. Non-resemblance to the creation (Al-Mukhalafatu)

5. Eternity (Al-Qidam)

6. Everlastingness (Al-Baqa )

7. Power (Al-Qudrah)

8. Will (Al-Iradah)

9. Hearing (As-Sam^)

10. Sight (Al-Basar)

11. Speech (Al-Kalam)

12. Life (Al-Hayah)

13. Knowledge (Al-^Ilm)


Questions:

1. What is the first obligation upon mankind?

2. What does knowing Allah mean?

3. What is impossible for Allah to be attributed with?

4. What is permissible to attribute to Him?

5. What did Al-Ghazaliyy say?

6. What does knowing the Prophet mean?

7. What are attributes that every prophet must be attributed with?

8. What is impossible to attribute the Prophet with?

9. What is permissible to attribute to the prophets?

10. What are the attributes of Allah that every accountable person must know?


LESSON 3

FAITH AND PIETY

Allah said in the Qur'an:

{Ya 'Ayyuhal-ladhina amanut-taqul-laha wal tandhur nafsum-ma qaddamat lighad.}

Ayah 18 of Suratul-Hashr means: “O you who believe, have piety and prepare for the Hereafter.

Piety is: fulfilling the obligations and avoiding the prohibitions. The first and greatest obligation is to believe in Allah and His Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, followed by the prayers, fasting, and the like.

Blasphemy is the most enormous and serious sin. Allah will not forgive the person who dies in the state of blasphemy. However, Allah may forgive whomever He wills among the believers for sins such as lying, stealing, drinking alcohol, and accepting and using money earned from usurious gain.

Hence, those people who die as Muslims are divided into two groups:

1. Those who die in a state of belief and piety. They will have no torture in the grave or the Hereafter.

2. Those Muslims who died believing in Allah, but committed enormous sins. For example, they have left out obligatory prayers or fasting, or have drunk alcohol or have eaten pork. Allah will forgive some of these people. They will enter Paradise without torture, but they will have a rank lower than the rank of the pious people in Paradise. Others will be punished in Hellfire for the sins they committed, then they will enter Paradise and stay there forever.


Questions:

1. What is the meaning of piety?

2. What is the first and greatest obligation?

3. Does Allah forgive sins other than blasphemy?

4. How many types are the people who die Muslim?

5. What is the state of those who die on belief and piety?

6. What is the state of those who die as enormous sinners?

7. Name some of the enormous sins.


LESSON 4

ISLAM IS THE RELIGION OF ALL PROPHETS

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa may-yabtaghi ghayral-Islami dinan falay-yuqbala minh.

Ayah 85 of Surat Al ^Imran means: “Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam [it] will not be accepted from him.”

Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur’an:

Innad-dina ^indallahil-Islam.

Which means: “Certainly, the only religion accepted by Allah is Islam.Islam is the only true Religion. In following Islam, happiness is ensured in the Hereafter. Allah chose truthful men and sent them as prophets to the people to teach them the creed of Islam and matters that will help them to have a good life in both this world and in the Hereafter.

All the prophets are Muslims, believing that Allah is One [God] without partners to Him. The first prophet was Adam and the last was Muhammad, may Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and the rank of all his fellow prophets and save his nation from that which he fears for them.

As for the Islamic Laws revealed to the different messengers, there were some differences among them. For example, in the times of ^Isa and Musa, peace be upon them, Muslims were ordered to pray only two times in every day and night. However, in the laws revealed to Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Muslims are ordered to pray five times in every day and night.


Questions:

1. What is the true Religion? Give an ayah that proves your answer.

2. Why did Allah send messengers?

3. Who are the prophets? Who is the first of them? Who is the last?

4. State an ayah that proves the blasphemy of those who are not Muslim.

5. What is the Religion of all the prophets? In what do all the prophets believe?

6. Did the Islamic Laws of the prophets differ? Give examples.


LESSON 5

THE ATTRIBUTES OF THE PROPHETS,

MAY PEACE BE UPON THEM ALL

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa kullan faddalna ^alal-^alamin.

Ayah 86 of Suratul-‘Ambiyameans, “Allah favors every prophet over all humans, jinn, and angels.”

Thus, the prophets are the best of Allah's creations. They are the chosen among the humans. Allah sent them to teach the people the matters of the Religion that are good for them in this life and the Hereafter.

The prophets are attributed with good manners and fine qualities. Among their good manners is that they are truthful, intelligent, trustworthy, chaste, and courageous. This means, no prophet was a liar or stupid. None of them was dishonest, loose, or a coward.

Prophets are not inflicted with diseases that repel people away from them. For example, worms do not come out of their bodies. Prophets do not become insane.

In summary, prophets, peace be upon them, are attributed with:

· Truthfulness; they never lie.

· Intelligence; they are never stupid.

· Trustworthiness; they never cheat.

· Chastity; they never behave impurely or indecently.

· Bravery; they are never cowards.


Questions:

1. Who are the best of the creations? Give an ayah that proves your answer.

2. List some of the good manners of the prophets.

3. What are the diseases with which the prophets are not inflicted?

4. What are the attributes of the prophets? What are the attributes that are impossible for the prophets to have?


LESSON 6

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PROPHETS

AND THE MESSENGERS,

PEACE BE UPON THEM

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa may-yakfur billahi wa mala’ikatihi wa kutubihi wa rusulihi wal-Yawmil-akhiri faqad dalla dallalam ba^ida.

Ayah 136 of Suratun-Nisa means: “Whoever blasphemes (disbelieves in) Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment, then certainly he has seriously strayed.”

The messengers mentioned in this ayah include the prophets who were not messengers as well. A messenger is a prophet to whom Allah revealed a new set of rules. A prophet did not receive a new set of rules. Rather, he was ordered to teach and follow the same rules that were revealed to the messenger before him. The scholars said: “Every messenger is a prophet, but not every prophet is a messenger.”

All prophets and messengers were ordered to convey the orders of Allah to the people and they did.

For this reason, the number of the prophets is very large. As for the messengers, they were three-hundred-thirteen (313). The Qur’an mentions only twenty-five (25) of the prophets and messengers. They are:

1) Adam 2) Idris 3) Nuh 4) Hud

5) Salih 6) Ibrahim 7) Isma^il 8) Ishaq

9) Ya^qub 10) Lut 11) Yusuf 12) Ayyub

13) Shu^ayb 14) Musa 15) Harun

16) Dhul-kifl 17) Dawud 18) Sulayman 19) Ilyas 20) Ilyasa^ 21) Yunus 22) Zakariyya 23) Yahya 24) ^Isa 25) Muhammad

May Allah raise the rank of all of the Prophets, and protect the nation of Muhammad from that which he fears for it.


Questions:

1. State an ayah that proves the obligation to believe in the prophets.

2. What is meant by the messengers in the previous ayah?

3. What is a messenger?

4. What is a prophet?

5. What is the difference between prophets and messengers?

6. List some of the names of the prophets that were stated in the Qur’an.


LESSON 7

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

MIRACLES AND SORCERY

Allah created humans and gave them a mind, by which they distinguish between the good and the bad. He also sent for them prophets to guide them to the true path of success. However, many people are stubborn and refuse to accept the truth. They are people who do not use their minds for that which they were created.

Certainly Allah supported His honorable messengers with miracles. A miracle is an extraordinary act. It is not a usual event that happens in everyday life or to everyone. Miracles are only for prophets and are always in agreement with what they say. So, none of the people can do anything which is equal or similar to a miracle to discredit a prophet. Such miracles are: the flowing of water from between the fingers of Prophet Muhammad; and transforming the cane of Prophet Musa into a giant snake.

Miracles are not acts of sorcery, because sorcery can be taught. Also an act of sorcery can be outdone or imitated with another act of sorcery. Pharaoh’s sorcerers tricked the eyes of people into seeing that their ropes turned into snakes (which did not really happen). The sorcerers saw Prophet Musa turning his staff into a real snake that swallowed their ropes. They knew for sure that this was not sorcery at all, but was a true miracle given by Allah to His Messenger. Therefore, they believed in him.

Practicing sorcery is an enormous sin.


Questions:

1. Why did Allah give humans a mind? Why did He send prophets?

2. With what did Allah support His messengers? What is a miracle?

3. Who performs miracles? Is anyone able to oppose them?

4. Mention a miracle performed by Prophet Muhammad and another by Prophet Musa.

5. What is the difference between a miracle and sorcery?

6. What is the judgment of the one who performs sorcery?


LESSON 8

BELIEVING IN WHAT OUR MASTER

MUHAMMAD (sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam) CONVEYED

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa ma atakumur-rasulu fakhudhuhu wa ma nahakum ^anhu fantahu.

Ayah 7 of Suratul-Hashr means: “Take whatever the Messenger orders, and refrain from whatever he forbids.”

In the Ayah, Allah, the Exalted, orders us to obey and follow the teachings of the Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. This means for us to obey his command in what he told us to do and in what he told us not to do, because the Messenger is truthful in all what he conveyed.

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa ma yantiqu ^anil-hawa. In huwa illa wahyuy-yuha.

Ayahs 3-4 of Suratun-Najm mean: “The Messenger does not speak from his own mind. He says what is revealed to him from Allah.”

Everything that the Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, informed is valid and true. This includes all matters that are permissible (halal) and forbidden (haram). Also are true the stories he told of the prophets who were before him and even matters of the future, like what will happen in this life and the Hereafter.

Among the news that the Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, informed us about is the torture that will happen to non-Muslims and some of the Muslim sinners in the grave. He also informed us about the enjoyments of the pious Muslims in the grave, the Day of Judgment, the presentation of the deeds, the reward, the punishment, Paradise, Hellfire, and other matters. So, the non-believers will be tortured in their graves. As to the pious believers, Allah will illuminate their grave with a light similar to that of a full moon.


Questions:

1. State an ayah of the Qur’an that orders to follow the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.

2. State an ayah of the Qur’an that proves the truthfulness of what the Prophet conveyed.

3. List some of the matters that the Prophet told about.

4. Who is inflicted with the torture in the grave? Who is blessed with the enjoyment therein?

5. Give an example of the enjoyment in the grave for the pious Muslims.


LESSON 9

REWARD AND PUNISHMENT

Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur’an:

Innal-abrara lafi na^im. Wa innal-fujjara lafi jahim.

Ayahs 13-14 Suratul-Infitar mean: “Pious Muslims will have enjoyments in Paradise. Blasphemers will have punishment in Hellfire.”

It is an obligation to believe that Allah will reward the believers for their good deeds and will punish the non-believers for their blasphemy as well as other sins they committed. Also Allah will punish whomever He wills of the Muslim sinners in the Hereafter.

The reward is whatever will please the believer in the Hereafter. Examples are: drinking from the Basin (Hawd) of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam, crossing the Bridge (as-Sirat), and entering Paradise, the place of everlasting enjoyment.

The punishment is whatever agonizes people in the Hereafter, like the subjection of the blasphemers to the heat of the sun on the Day of Judgment, and their entrance into Hellfire, the place of everlasting torture.

Also, some of the Muslims who died without repenting of their sins, and whom Allah does not forgive, will be punished in Hellfire for a period of time. Then, by Allah’s order, they will be taken out of Hellfire and admitted into Paradise, because they died as believers.


Questions:

1. State the ayah that proves that there is reward and punishment in the Hereafter.

2. What does it mean to believe in the reward and punishment?

3. What is reward? Give an example.

4. What is punishment? Give an example.

5. What happens to the sinful Muslims on the Day of Judgment?


LESSON 10

ENJOYMENT IN THE HEREAFTER

Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur’an:

Innal-ladhina amanu wa ^amilus-salihati lahum Jannatun-na^im.

Ayah 8 of Surat Luqman means: “Certainly, those who believed and did the good deeds will have enjoyable gardens (in Paradise).” Allah has promised the believers who performed the obligations and avoided the prohibitions the wide gardens of Paradise, in which there is an everlasting enjoyment. Paradise has wide rivers of milk, honey, water, and non-intoxicating wine (khamr), which is not like the wine (khamr) of this life. Paradise also contains fragrant perfumes and has beautiful trees and huge castles.

In Paradise all the believers will be of the same age, thirty-three years old. Even those people who died very old or very young will be at that same age. A non-accountable blasphemer who dies will enter Paradise.

Everyone in Paradise will be beautiful and as tall as Prophet Adam, peace be upon him. In Paradise, no one will die, become sick, be sad, grow old, or even become tired.

Paradise is above the seventh heaven. The Grand ^Arsh is its ceiling. Non-Muslims will never enter Paradise.

Paradise will remain forever. It will never cease to exist and its residents will never die.


Question:

1. State the ayah that proves that Allah prepared Paradise for the Muslims.

2. What did Allah promise the pious Muslims?

3. List some of the enjoyments in Paradise.

4. How old will the people of Paradise be?

5. How tall will the people of Paradise be?

6. Where is Paradise located? What is the ceiling of Paradise?

7. Who will never enter Paradise?

8. Will the non-accountable blasphemer enter Paradise?


Chapter on

THE ACTS OF WORSHIP


LESSON 1

TYPES OF WATER

1. Water is divided into three (3) types. They are:

a.) Pure and purifying water.

b.) Pure but non-purifying water

c.) Najas-filthy water

Pure and purifying water: This is the absolute water, i.e. pure in itself and purifying when it is used in purificatory bathing (ghusl), ablution (wudu ’), and ridding of najas-filth. Examples of such water are the rain, ocean, river, well, and spring water.

Pure but non-purifying water (used water): It includes two types: the water that has been used for lifting off a major impurity or a minor one, and water that has been used for ridding of the najas-filth and none of its properties has changed, i.e. color, taste, or smell. This water is still pure in itself but is not purifying. So if this used water was collected, it cannot be used for obligatory purification like purificatory bathing (ghusl), ablution (wudu), or to remove najas-filth, unless it is a lot of water. However it can be used, for example, for washing clothes that do not have najas-filth on them.

Najas-filthy water: This is a small amount of water that came into contact with an unexempted najas-filth. Even if the water’s properties did not change, i.e. color, taste or smell, it is still najas-filthy water. A lot of water that comes into contact with a najas-filth becomes najas-filthy water only if the najas-filth changes any of its properties. However, if its properties do not change, then this water is still pure.

A lot of water is two qullahs, or more. Two qullahs is approximately 51 gallons (about 191 liters) of water. A little amount of water is the amount that is under two qullahs.


Question:

1. What are the types of water?

2. What is pure water? Give an example?

3. What is used water?

4. Can we make ablution (wudu) and purificatory bath (ghusl) using the water that is pure but non-purifying?

5. Can we use the pure but non-purifying water to wash the clothes that have najas? The clothes that do not have najas-filth?

6. What is the judgment of the small amount of water in which an unexempted najas-filthy material has fallen in?

7. When does a large amount of water become najas-filthy?

8. What is a large amount of water? What is the small amount of water?


LESSON 2

PURIFICATION FROM NAJAS-FILTH

Najas-Filth is of two types: detectable (^ayniyyah) and undetectable (hukmiyyah).

1. Detectable (^ayniyyah) najas-filth: This is the detectable najas-filth, i.e., whose entity, color, taste, or smell is detectable, such as a drop of blood on clothing. This najas-filthy area can be purified by pouring water, which is pure and purifying, on it until the entities and properties of the najas-filth are removed.

2. Undetectable (hukmiyyah) najas-filth: This is the type of najas-filth that no longer has a color, taste, or smell; such as urine that has dried on clothing without leaving any of its properties, i.e. this dry urine no longer has a smell, color or taste. The place that is contaminated with this najas-filth can be purified by pouring purifying water over it.

If the najas-filth which is from a dog or a pig, such as their saliva, comes on the hands, clothing, or utensils of a person, this najas-filthy place is purified by washing it with purifying water, seven times, one of which has to be mixed with purifying soil.

There are types of najas-filth that are exempted, i.e., they do not contaminate the water by coming in contact with it. For example, if a little spray of urine that cannot be seen by the mere naked eye falls into water, it does not make the water filthy. As well, if an insect that does not bleed, such as a mosquito or a fly, falls into the water and dies in it, this water does not become najas-filthy.


Questions:

1. What is the detectable (^ayniyyah) najas-filth? Give an example.

2. How do we clean the place that has detectable najas-filth on it?

3. What is the undetectable (hukmiyyah) najas-filth? Give an example.

4. How do we purify the place that has an undetectable najas-filth on it?

5. How do we purify the place that has the najas-filth of a dog or pig?

6. Give an example of a najas-filth from a dog?

7. Is there any exempted najas-filth? Give an example.

8. Does the water become najas-filthy if an exempted najas-filth fell into it?


LESSON 3

CONDITIONS OF PURIFICATION

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Innallaha yahibbut-tawwabina wa yuhibbul-mutatahhirin.

Ayah 222 of Surat Al-Baqarah means: “Surely, Allah loves those who repent of their sins and perform the purification as they should.”

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

{Attuhuru Shatrul-Iman} (Related by Muslim.) This hadith if literally translated says Purification is half of faith. This means purification is a very important matter in Islam.

Purification means: lifting off the states of major and minor ritual impurity and removing najas-filth.

The conditions for one’s purification to be valid are:

(a)Islam: The person purifying him/herself has to be Muslim. The purification act (wudu’, ghusl) done by a non-Muslim is not valid.

(b) Mental Discrimination (Tamyiz): This means for one to be in a stage where he/she can at least understand when spoken to and can answer properly when asked. Moreover, the child can independently eat or drink and avoid najas-filth. In most cases, the age of mental discrimination is when a child is around six or seven years, but it could happen earlier.

(c) Absence of a barrier that prevents the water from reaching the part to be washed: Barriers are like paint, grease, or nail polish.

(d) Flowing of the water: This means water must flow on the part to be washed. Therefore, if you wet wipe your face and arms in ablution (wudu), the wudu is not valid. However, one may use his hands to spread the water over the washed part.

(e) Using purifying water: This is water that is not najas-filthy or used water.


Questions:

1. State an ayah from the Qur’an that talks about purification.

2. Give a hadith of the Prophet concerning the matter of purification.

3. List the conditions of purification.

4. What is meant by the age of mental discrimination (tamyiz)?

5. Give an example of a barrier that prevents water from reaching the part being washed.

6. Explain what the flowing of water means.


LESSON 4

ISTINJA (Cleaning oneself after

urination and defecation)

It is an obligation to make istinjafrom the wet najas-filth after it has passed from any of the eliminatory outlets. This means if urine or the like passes out of a person, the person must clean himself from the najas-filth before praying, otherwise the prayer will not be valid. However, one does not have to make istinja after passing gas.

Istinjacan be done either by using water or using a material that is pure, solid, dry, uprooting, and unrespected. Such materials are like rocks, tissues, or papers that do not have any Islamic material on them.

Performing istinjausing water is done by pouring the pure water over the contaminated place until it becomes pure.

As for performing istinja ’ with other than water, it is done by wiping the outlet three times with the aforementioned described materials. If it is still not clean, more wipes must be done until it is clean. It is not valid to have less than three wipes, even if cleanliness is achieved with two wipes.

Benefit:

It is a rewardable deed (sunnah) before entering the toilet room to say:

Bismillah. Allahumma inni a^udhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khaba’ith.

Which means: “I enter with the name of Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the harm of the male and female devils.”

Also, after leaving the toilet room it is sunnah to say:

Ghufranak. Al-hamdu lillahi-lladhi adhhaba ^annil-adha wa ^afani.

Which means: “Praise be to Allah, Who took the harm away from me, and granted me good health.”


Questions:

1. When is it an obligation to make istinja?

2. Is it obligatory to perform istinja after passing gas?

3. What materials can be used to perform istinja?

4. What is meant by something that uproots the najas-filth? Give an example.

5. How is istinja done with water?

6. If one wants to perform istinja with a rock, how many times must he wipe the outlet?

7. Are less than three wipes enough for a valid istinja?

8. If one wipes three times and the outlet is not clean what must one do?

9. What is recommended (sunnah) to say upon entering the toilet room?

10. What is recommended (sunnah) to say upon leaving the toilet room?


LESSON 5

WUDU ’ (ABLUTION):

ITS INTEGRALS AND RECOMMENDED MATTERS

Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur’an:

Ya ayyuhal-ladhina amanu idha qumtum ilas-Salati faghsilu wujuhakum wa aydiakum ilal-marafiqi wamsahu biru’usikum wa arjulakum ilal-ka^bayn.

Ayah 6 of Suratul-Ma’idah means: “O you who believed, if you want up to perform prayers, then wash your faces and your hands up to (and including) the elbows, wet wipe your heads, and wash your feet with the ankles.”

The integrals (rukns) of ablution (wudu ’) are six, they are:

1. To have the intention in the heart upon washing the face. One says in the heart “I now intend to perform wudu(ablution),” or the like.

2. To wash the whole face, from the normal hairline to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear.

3. To wash the hands from the tips of the fingers then up to and including the elbows.

4. To wet wipe part of the head.

5. To wash the feet with the ankles included.

6. To do all of previous acts in the order mentioned above. This means: first, have the intention when washing the face; secondly wash the face; thirdly, wash the hands and forearms; fourthly, wet wipe part of the head, and lastly wash the feet with the ankles.

Some of the recommended (sunnahs) matters of wudu are:

· To say ‘Bismillah’ upon washing the hands.

· To wash the hands up to the wrists.

· To use the tooth-stick (siwak).

· To rinse the mouth with water (madmadah).

· To sniff water.

· To wet wipe the whole head.

· To wet wipe the back and front of the ears with new water, i.e. with water different from that used to wet wipe the head.

· To criss-cross the fingers when washing the hands and to insert the smallest left finger between the toes while washing the feet.

· To wash the right part and before the left.

· To do each washing or wiping three times.

· To rub the parts when washing.

· To wash or wet wipe an organ before the previous organ has dried.


Questions:

1. What is the ayah that proves the obligation of performing ablution (wudu)?

2. How many integrals of ablution are there? List them.

3. When does one make the intention to make ablution (wudu)?

4. How much of the face is obligatory to wash?

5. How much of the hands are obligatory to wash?

6. How much of the feet are obligatory to wash?

7. What does keeping the order mean?

8. List some of the recommended matters in ablution (wudu).


LESSON 6

INVALIDATORS OF ABLUTION (WUDU ’)

AND ITS DISLIKED MATTERS

Among the matters that invalidate the ablution (wudu ’) are:

· Materials exiting from the eliminatory outlets, such as urine, feces, gas, or stomach worms.

· Touching the private parts of a human, i.e., the penis, vagina, or anus, with the inner part of the hand.

· Sleeping in a position where the buttocks are not tightly placed on the floor or sitting place. However, dozing such that one can still hear the words said around one even if one does not understand, without seeing a dream does not make the wudu invalid.

· Absence of mind. If a person faints or becomes insane, even for a little time, his wudu ’ is invalidated.

Among the disliked matters when performing ablution are:

· To start with the left part before the right part;

· To wash (or wet wipe) a part more than three times;

· To waste water, i.e. to inexcusably use a lot of water in making wudu ‘.


Questions:

1. List some of the invalidators of ablution (wudu)?

2. Does dozing invalidate ablution (wudu)? What is dozing?

3. What does the absence of the mind mean?

4. List some of the disliked matters in ablution (wudu)?


LESSON 7

THE CALL FOR PRAYER (ADHAN) AND

THE CALL TO START THE PRAYER (IQAMAH)

The call for prayer:

When the prayer time sets in, it is a rewardable deed (sunnah) for a Muslim to call for the prayer with a raised voice. This is called the Adhan. The person who calls Muslims for prayer (Mu’adhdhin) stands after performing ablution in a high place facing the direction of the Ka^bah (Qiblah) and says:

Allahu akbaru-llahu akbar; Allahu akbaru-llahu akbar.

Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah; Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah.

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah;

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah.

Hayya ^alas-salah; Hayya ^alas-salah.

Hayya ^alal-falah; Hayya ^alal-falah.

Allahu akbaru-llahu akbar.

La ilaha illallah.

In the call for the dawn prayer (Fajr), the caller adds after saying the second Hayya ^alal-falah.

:

As-Salatu khayrum-minan-nawm; As-Salatu khayrum-minan-nawm.

It is a rewardable deed (sunnah) for the Muslims hearing the call to the prayer (adhan) to repeat after the caller the same words, except when he says ‘Hayya ^alas-salah and Hayya ^alal-falah’. Instead one would say “La-hawla wa la quwwata illa billah.”

The call to start the prayer:

After the person calling the people for the prayer (Mu’adhdhin) has finished his call, and people are gathered to do one of the obligatory prayers, one of those people (better to be the mu’adhdhin himself) makes the last call before starting the prayer. This is called the iqamah. He says:

Allahu akbaru-llahu Akbar.

Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah.

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah.

Hayya ^alas-salah. Hayya ^alal-falah.

Qad qamatis-salah; Qad qamatis-salah.

Allahu akbarullahu Akbar. La ilaha illallah.

It is rewardable to perform “As-Salatu ^alan-Nabiyy” after every call for prayer (Adhan) and the call to start the prayer (Iqamah)


Questions:

1. If the time of prayer is in what is recommended to do before starting to pray?

2. Do you have the words of the call for prayer (adhan) memorized? Say the adhan.

3. What does the one performing adhan add for the adhan of Fajr?

4. What is it recommended for the people listening to the adhan to do?

5. Do you have the words of the call to start the prayer (iqamah) memorized? Say the iqamah.

6. What is recommended to say after adhan and iqamah?


LESSON 8

THE OBLIGATORY PRAYERS AND THEIR TIMES

The prayers that are obligatory for every day and night are five; they are:

1. The Noon Prayer (Dhuhr) [four (4) rak^ahs]: Its time begins when the sun has declined westward from the middle of the sky and remains until the length of the shadow of an object becomes equal to that of the object, in addition to the length of the shadow cast by that object when the sun was at its zenith (istiwa).

2. The Mid-afternoon Prayer (^Asr) [four (4) rak^ahs]: Its time begins after Dhuhr ends, and remains until sunset.

3. The Sunset Prayer (Maghrib) [three (3) rak^ahs]: Its time begins after sunset, i.e., when ^Asr ends, and remains until the redness disappears in the western horizon.

4. The Nightfall Prayer (^Isha) [four (4) rak^ahs]: Its time begins after the Maghrib time ends and remains until the appearance of the true dawn (Fajr Sadiq) appears.

5. The Dawn Prayer (Subh or Fajr) [two (2) rak^ahs]: Its time begins after ^Isha time ends and remains until sunrise (Shuruq).

These obligatory prayers must be performed in their due times. Without a valid excuse, it is unlawful to perform the prayers ahead of their times or to delay performing them until after their times have passed.


Questions:

1. What are the obligatory prayers for a day and night?

2. When does the time of Fajr begin? How does it end?

3. What is the true Fajr?

4. When does the time of Dhuhr begin? How does it end?

5. When does the time of ^Asr begin? How does it end?

6. When does the time of Maghrib begin? How does it end?

7. When does the time of ^Isha begin? How does it end?


LESSON 9

CONDITIONS FOR THE VALIDITY OF PRAYER

The conditions of the prayer are the matters that must be met by the performer of the prayer before starting it. Some of these conditions are:

· Islam: This means the prayer performed by a non-Muslim is not valid.

· Mental discrimination (tamyiz): This is the age at which the child can understand when spoken to and can answer when asked.

· Ablution (Wudu): It is a must for the person who wants to pray to have a valid ablution (wudu), otherwise the prayer will not be valid.

· Purity in the clothing, body, and place: The place where the person is praying should be pure from any unexempted najas-filth.

· Covering the unlawful nakedness (^awrah): This means for the male to cover between his navel and knees. For the female it means to cover all of her body, except her face and hands.

· Knowing the prayer time has set in: This means the performer of the prayer should know for sure that the prayer time has actually set in.

· Facing the Qiblah: This means to direct one’s chest toward the Qiblah, that is to face the Holy Ka^bah in the honorable Makkah.

The prayer of the one who does not satisfy any of these conditions is not valid.


Questions:

1. Define the conditions for the validity of prayer.

2. List the conditions for the validity of prayer.

3. What is the age of mental discrimination?

4. Is the prayer valid without ablution (wudu)?

5. Is the prayer valid if there is unexempted najas-filth on the clothes?

6. What is the unlawful nakedness of a man? Of a woman?

7. What does knowing that the time of the prayer has set in mean?

8. What is the Qiblah during the prayer (salah)?

9. What is the judgment of the prayer of the one who does not satisfy any of these?


LESSON 10

INTEGRALS OF PRAYER

Each prayer has integrals and recommended matters. The prayer is not valid without its integrals. The recommended matters are rewardable matters within the prayer, which if left out, the prayer is still valid, but the reward will be less.

The integrals of prayer are seventeen (17). They are:

1. To have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer. One has to intend that the prayer is an obligatory prayer if it is so, and to specify the prayer that is performed for a particular reason or time;

2. To say “Allahu akbar” loud enough to hear oneself;

3. To stand (qiyam) for the obligatory prayer, when able;

4. To recite the Fatihah, including Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim and doubling the letters that must be doubled, in order and succession without lengthy interruption, articulating its letters properly, and avoiding any error (lahn) whether or not it breached the meaning. An error, which does not breach the meaning, does not invalidate the prayer unless done intentionally;

5. To bow until one’s palms could reach one’s knees (ruku^);

6. To remain motionless in ruku^ for the duration of saying “subhan Allah” (tuma’ninah);

7. To straighten up after ruku^ (i^tidal);

8. To remain motionless (i^tidal) for the duration of saying “subhan-Allah”;

9. To prostrate (perform sujud) twice by putting all or part of one’s uncovered forehead on one’s praying ground, with one’s lower body (buttocks) higher than one’s upper body, and one’s hands, and the bottom of one’s toes on the ground;

10. To have tuma’ninah in prostration (sujud);

11. To sit between the two prostrations;

12. To have tuma’ninah in this sitting;

13. To sit for saying the last tashahhud, the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy, and the closing salam;

14. To say the last tashahhud; the minimum of which is:

At-Tahiyyatu lillah. Salamun ^alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. Salamun ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahis-salihin. Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah, wa anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah.

The full tashahhud is:

At-Tahiyyatul-mubarakat, as-Salawatut-tayyibatu lillah. As-salamu ^alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. As-salamu ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahis-salihin. As-hadu alla ilaha illallah, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulallah.

15. To say the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy. The minimum of which is: Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad;

16. To say the closing salam. The minimum is As-Salamu ^alaykum;

17. To observe the order as mentioned above. To intentionally perform the integrals of action of the prayer out of order invalidates the prayer. An example is if one intentionally prostrates before one’s ruku^.

THE MEANING OF SOME OF THE WORDS SAID IN PRAYER

· Allahu Akbar: Allah is the greatest in status, not in size. Allah is clear of having a size.

· At-Tahiyyat: the greetings with which people greet each other.

· Al-Mubarakat: the deeds that grow with blessings.

· As-Salawat: the five obligatory prayers.

· At-Tayyibat: the good deeds

· Lillah: are all owned by Allah, the Exalted.

· As-Salamu ^alayka Ayyuhan-Nabiyyu: asking Allah to protect the Prophet from any harm.


Questions:

1. Is the prayer valid without its integrals?

2. How many integrals of prayer are there?

3. List the integrals of prayer without the explanations.

4. What is the intention and when is it made?

5. What is the opening Allahu Akbar?

6. Is the intention made in the heart or with the tongue?

7. Is the first Allahu Akbar said in the heart or with the tongue?

8. What does standing up for the one who is able mean?

9. What is the ruku^?

10. What is tuma’ninah and how long must it be?

11. What is i^tidal?

12. How is sujud performed?

13. What is the minimum of the last tashahhud?

14. What is the complete tashahhud?

15. What is the least of as-Salah ^alan-Nabiyy?

16. What is the least of the Salam?

17. What does keeping the order mean?


LESSON 11

THE RECOMMENDED DEEDS OF PRAYER (SUNNAHS)

The recommended deeds in the prayer are many. If a person leaves them out, his prayer is still valid. However, if a person does the recommended deeds in the prayer, he will have reward for doing them. That is why the Muslim should do them in the prayer. Some of the recommended deeds are:

· To place the right hand over the left hand, placing both over the navel and under the chest.

· To recite the opening du^a(supplication) in the first rak^ah before saying the Fatihah.

· To recite from the Qur’an, even if it is a short Surah or even one ayah after saying the Fatihah, in the first two rak^ahs. This is for a person who is praying alone or following the imam but does not hear the imam’s recitation.

· To say “Allahu-Akbar” when moving from one integral of action to another in the prayer, except when standing up after bowing. In this action one says: Sami^allahu liman hamidah. So all the takbirs in the prayer are optional except for the first takbir when starting the prayer. This is “Takbiratul-Ihram” and saying it is an integral (rukn).

· To say “Subhana-Rabbiyal-^adhim” three times in the ruku^. This means: Our exalted Lord is clear of any imperfection

· To say “Sami^allahu liman hamidah” when straightening the back after bowing. Then to say “Rabana-lakal-hamd” when straight.

· To say “Subhana Rabbiyal-A^la[2] three times in the sujud.

· To say “Allahumma-ghfir-li war-hamni wahdini wa ^afini warzuqni ”, when sitting between the two prostrations. This phrase means: O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, keep me guided, make me well, and give me good things.

· To say the first tashahhud after finishing the first two rak^ahs in the Noon (Dhuhr), Mid-afternoon (^Asr), Sunset (Maghrib), and Nightfall (^Isha ) prayers.

· To say the full version of the Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah[3] after the final tashahhud.

· To add “wa rahmatullah” after saying As-salamu ^alaykum at the end of the prayer. That is to say: As-salamu ^Alaykum wa rahmatullah.

· To perform the second salam when ending the prayer.

· To turn the head to the right side when saying the first Salam and then to the left when saying the second Salam.


Questions:

1. Where is it recommended to place one’s right hand after the first takbir?

2. What is recommended to recite before the Fatihah?

3. What is recommended to recite after the Fatihah? In what rak^ahs?

4. What is recommended to do when moving from one integral to another?

5. What is recommended to say in ruku^? In sujud?

6. What is it recommended to say when lifting from ruku^? When standing after ruku^?

7. What is it recommended to say in the sitting between the two sujuds?

8. What is recommended to add to the salam?

9. Which of the two salams is sunnah? Which of the two tashahhuds is sunnah?

10. Where is it recommended to turn the head during the first and second salam?


LESSON 12

INVALIDATORS OF PRAYER

There are matters that invalidate the prayer. These matters should be known to avoid them. Some of these invalidators are:

· To speak on purpose: This means if a person who is praying says other than the prayer’s statements, even two letters or one meaningful letter (unless one forgets and speaks a little), one’s prayer becomes invalid. However, mentioning Allah does not invalidate the prayer.

· To eat or drink: This means if a person, while remembering that he is praying, eats or drinks on purpose, the prayer becomes invalid, even if he ate something as tiny as a sesame seed.

· To move a lot: This means if a person who is praying moves a lot in his prayer, such as if he does three consecutive moves, the prayer becomes invalid.

· To make an excessive move: This means if a person praying makes a big jump, the prayer becomes invalid.

· To move once to play: Even one small move, such as moving the tongue or moving the eyebrow for the purpose of playing, makes the prayer invalid.

· To do an extra integral: Like if a person prostates three times in one rak^ah intentionally, then his prayer becomes invalid.

· To change intention: This means if a person while praying intends to interrupt the prayer before finishing it, or hesitates whether or not to interrupt it, or makes interrupting it contingent on the occurrence of something, this makes his prayer invalid. An example is if one intends (thinks in one’s heart), ‘I will stop my prayer if someone knocks at the door’, then the prayer becomes invalid immediately.

· To exit the state of taharah: This means if a person’s wudu’ becomes invalid when praying by passing gas or the like, his prayer becomes invalid.


Questions:

1. List some of the invalidators of prayer.

2. What does speaking on purpose mean?

3. Does mentioning Allah invalidate the prayer?

4. What is the judgment of the one who eats or drinks even if a little intentionally while remembering that he is in prayer?

5. Give an example of a lot of moves that would invalidate the prayer?

6. Give an example of an excessive move?

7. Give an example of one action that is intended for play?

8. Give an example of adding an integral?

9. What does changing the intention mean?

10. What does exiting the state of taharah mean?


LESSON 13

THE SOFT-RECITATION PRAYER

AND THE LOUD-RECITATION PRAYER

The prayers with the loud recitation are the Dawn (Subh), Sunset (Maghrib), and Nightfall (^Isha’) prayers. In these prayers the person praying alone says the Fatihah, the word Amin after it and the verses afterwards in the first two rak^ahs in a loud voice.

The two prayers with the soft recitation are the Noon (Dhuhr) and Mid-afternoon (^Asr) prayers. In these prayers the person does not say anything in a loud voice.

If a prayer was not done in its due time, the person has to make it up. If a person missed one of the loud-recitation prayers like the Dawn prayer, and prayed it at the time of a soft-recitation prayer, like the Noon prayer, he does it with a low voice before praying the Noon prayer. But if a person who missed a loud-recitation prayer like the Sunset prayer and prayed it at the time of another loud-recitation prayer, like the Nightfall prayer, then he does it loudly.

Also if the person missed one of the soft-recitation prayers like the Mid-afternoon prayer and made it up in the time of a loud-recitation prayer like the Sunset prayer, then he prays it loudly as well.

BENEFITS

· If a person following the imam in one of the loud prayers heard the imam say the Qur’anic verse:

Alaysal-Lahu bi’ahkamil-hakimin.

(Suratut-Tin, Ayah 8), he says, “Bala wa ana ala dhalika minash-shahidin.” (Which means: of course Allah is, I bear witness to it). Which means: “Is not Allah has all the wisdom. The follower can say, “Bala” after hearing the Ayah even if he is saying the Fatihah, then he continues.

· When the imam finishes the Fatihah, the follower says “Amin” with the imam.

· If the follower in the prayer hears the name of the Prophet in a verse from the Qur’an, the follower says “Allahumma salli ^Alayh”, meaning: O Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad.

· However, if someone greets with Salam the one who is praying, the latter must not address him by answering with ”Wa ^alaykumus-salam”, because the prayer becomes invalid if he does.

· Similarly, if a person sneezes it is not permissible for someone who is praying to address him by saying “yarhamukallah” (may Allah have mercy on you). Saying that while remembering that one is praying invalidate one’s prayer.


Questions:

1. Which of the five obligatory prayers are said with loud-recitation?

2. What does the Imam say loudly in these prayers?

3. Which of the five obligatory prayers are said with soft-recitation?

4. What should the one who misses one of the five prayers?

5. How would a person making up a loud-recitation prayer in the time of a soft-recitation prayer perform the prayer? Give an example.

6. How would a person making up a soft-recitation prayer in the time of a loud-recitation prayer perform the prayer? Give an example.


LESSON 14

THE CONGREGATIONAL PRAYER (JAMA^AH)

Every day Muslims pray five prayers in congregation in the mosques. Here are some rules of the congregational prayer that should be observed:

· The follower must stand behind the leader (imam) in prayer and must not say Allahu Akbar except after the imam says it.

· The follower should make the intention to pray in congregation by saying in the heart, “I now intend to pray the obligatory Noon prayer in congregation” or the like.

· If praying a soft-recitation prayer, the follower and the imam recite with a low voice in their prayer. In the loud-recitation prayer (after the imam finishes reciting the Fatihah) the follower recites the Fatihah with a low voice, and then he listens to the remaining loud recitation of the imam. As for the imam says loudly the Fatihah, Amin, the surah in the first two rak^ahs; all “Allahu Akbar” statements, and “Sami^ Allahu liman hamidah”.

· The follower says “Amin” with the imam after the imam has finished reciting the Fatihah.

· The follower’s actions should be after the imam’s and not before him. The follower bows after the imam has bowed; he straightens his back again after the imam has done so; and he prostrates after the imam’s forehead reaches the floor.

· If there is only one person following the imam in prayer, then the follower stands a little behind the right side of the imam. However, if another person comes to pray following the imam, then both followers stand in one line further behind the imam.

· The follower must not say the closing salamAs-Salamu ^alaykum” before the imam, because if he does so his prayer becomes invalid.


Questions:

1. Where does the person praying following the imam stand? When does he say the takbir?

2. What intention does the one who intends to follow the imam make?

3. When does the follower say Amin?

4. When does the follower make ruku^? When does he lift up from it?

5. When does the follower say the salam? What is the judgment of his prayer if he says the salam intentionally before the imam?


LESSON 15

FRIDAY PRAYER (JUMU^AH)

The Friday prayer (jumu^ah) is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, sane, and unexcused Muslim males if they are forty or more in number and living in buildings, and not in tents. This means that if the number of these Muslim men was under forty or they live in tents, like the Bedouins, then performing the Friday prayer (jumu^ah) is not an obligation upon them. An Islamically acceptable excuse for missing the Friday prayer is like if the person is very sick and finds it very hard to get to the place where the Friday prayer is performed.

The Friday prayer is two rak^ahs prayed instead of the Dhuhr prayer, but loudly. Its conditions are:

1. To be prayed after the Noon prayer time has set in and within its time.

2. Two Speeches have to be given before the prayer during Dhuhr time and all the forty men must be present to listen to them.

3. The forty men have to pray in congregation, otherwise if they are less than forty they pray the Noon prayer (four [4] rak^ahs), not the Friday Prayer.

4. All Muslims should gather in one place to do one Friday Prayer in one town. However, if it is hard for the Muslims to meet in one place, then they can conduct Friday prayers in more than one place, but only as much as needed.

Integrals of the Two Speeches:

1. To praise Allah, by saying “Al-hamdu-lillah” or the like;

2. To perform the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy, such as, Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad;

3. To command the audience to be God-fearing (to have taqwa), such as to say: I urge you to obey Allah;

The speaker should include all three of these integrals in both the first and second speech.

4. To say a verse of the Qur’an which carries a complete meaning in one of the two speeches. The verse could be as short as “Qul Huwa-llahu Ahad” meaning: Say, O Muhammad, Allah is One without a partner to Him.” It is better to say the verse in the first speech;

5. To say a supplication (du^a) for the Muslims in the second speech, such as “Allahumma-ghfirlil-mu’minin”, which means: “Oh Allah, forgive the believers”;

If a person misses doing the Friday prayer in congregation, then he must pray the Noon prayer, because the Friday Prayer is made up only by praying the Noon prayer.


Questions:

1. Upon whom is the Jumu^ah obligatory?

2. How many rak^ahs is the jumu^ah prayer?

3. List some of the conditions of the jumu^ah.

4. What are the integrals of the two speeches?

5. What should the one who misses the jumu^ah do? Why?


LESSON 16

THE PRAYER OF THE MASBUQ (late follower)

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for them, urged us to do our prayers in congregation and showed its merit over praying individually. In his hadith he said,

Salatul-Jama^ati afdalu min salatil-fadhdhi bi-sub^iw wa ^ishrina darajah.”

This hadith means, “The reward of the prayer conducted in congregation is equivalent to twenty-seven (27) times the reward of praying alone.” (Narrated by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)

Who is the masbuq?

The masbuq is the person who joined the congregational prayer while the imam is still standing for the recitation but at a time that is not enough for this person to finish reciting the Fatihah before the imam bows in the standing position. Also he is the one who caught up with the imam after the first standing position, such as ruku^, sujud or tashahhud.

The follower can still get the extra reward of praying in congregation if he or she catches a part of the prayer before the imam finishes the prayer, i.e., before he says As-Salamu ^alaykum.

What should the masbuq do?

The masbuq enters the prayer by saying “Allahu Akbar” and then follows the imam in his moves:

· If the imam is at the end of saying the Fatihah when the follower enters the prayer, the follower starts saying the Fatihah. When the imam bows to ruku^, the follower should follow the imam even if he or she has not finished saying the Fatihah. In this case the follower is excused from finishing the Fatihah.

· If the imam is bowing when the late follower enters the prayer, after saying: “Allahu-Akbar”, the follower bows. If the follower bows with the imam as long as is needed to say “Subhanallah” then this rak^ah is counted and the follower does not have to make it up. However, if the follower does not bow that long before the imam starts straightening his back up, then the follower has to make up one rak^ah after the imam has said the closing Salam.

· If the masbuq enters the prayer after the Imam has finished the ruku^, this rak^ah is not counted for the follower. However, the masbuq should follow the imam in whatever he is doing at that time; such as standing up after bowing, prostrating, and sitting between the two prostrations. Moreover, the follower should make up the missed rak^ah after the imam says the closing Salam.

· Also if the late follower starts the prayer when the imam is sitting doing the last tashahhud, the follower should sit down after saying Allahu akbar and follow the imam. When the imam says the closing Salam, the follower does not make the closing salam. Instead, he stands up and makes up all the missed rak^ahs.

· Note: Saying “Allahu Akbar” to enter into the prayer must always be done while standing up, even if the imam is bowing, prostrating, or sitting.


Questions:

1. State a hadith in which the Prophet talks about the merit of the congregational prayer.

2. Who is the masbuq?

3. How does one get the extra reward of the congregational prayer?

4. What does the latecomer (masbuq) do if he enters the prayer and the imam is at the end of the Fatihah?

5. What does the latecomer (masbuq) do if he enters the prayer and the imam was in the ruku^?

6. What does the latecomer (masbuq) do if he enters the prayer and the imam is standing after ruku^ or in sujud?

7. What does the latecomer (masbuq) do if he enters the prayer and the imam is in the last tashahhud?


LESSON 17

MAKING UP PRAYERS

The Messenger of Allah said:

Man nama ^an salatin aw nasiyaha fal-yusalliha idha dhakaraha la kaffarata laha illa dhalik.

This hadith means, “Whoever misses a prayer due to sleep or forgetting, let him pray it when he remembers it. Nothing else can be done to make up for it.” (Narrated by al-Bukhariyy.)

So if a person slept through the whole time of a prayer, he still has to do the prayer when he wakes up. Also, if a Muslim forgets to do a prayer and remembers after the time of that prayer has passed, then the Muslim must still make up that missed prayer. However, if a Muslim misses many prayers the number of which he does not know exactly, he is obligated to make up the missed prayers until he is almost sure that there are no more prayers that are due on him.

The good (pious) Muslim does not neglect making up the prayers he has missed. He hastens to make them up. He does not delay making them up while involving himself in what is not obligatory.

It is better (sunnah) to make up the missed prayer while observing the order of the prayers. So if one misses the Dawn prayer, for example then he makes it up before praying the Noon prayer.

If a Muslim starts making up the missed prayers with a firm intention to finish them all and was not lazy in making them, then he dies before finishing making them all up, Allah will not punish him for the ones which he does not finish.

A Muslim female must not pray when she is in the menstrual cycle or when she is bleeding after having a baby. She does not have to make up the prayers missed during that time.


Questions:

1. What is the proof that the one who missed prayers has to make them up? Mention a hadith.

2. What does the one who was asleep during the time of the prayer do upon waking up?

3. What must the one who forgot to pray do?

4. What should the one who missed prayers and does not know their number do?

5. With which prayer does the one who has to make up the Dhuhr and the Fajr start?

6. In what case does the woman not pray? Does she have to make up those prayers that she missed?


LESSON 18

FASTING THE BLESSED MONTH OF RAMADAN

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Shahru Ramadan-alladhi unzila fihil-Qur’anu huda-llinnasi wa bayyinatim-minal-huda wal-furqan(i), faman shahida minkumu-shshahra falyasumh.

Ayah 185 of Suratul-Baqarah means, “The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Qur’an with all the clear guidance which it contains was sent down in full [from the Guarded Tablet to the first sky, and then to the Prophet little by little]. So whoever among you is alive in the month of Ramadan must fast it.”

The month of Fasting: Fasting is a great act of worship that Allah ordained on Muslims to do in the month of Ramadan of every year. Fasting Ramadan will be rewarded greatly by Allah, the Exalted.

The Meaning of Fasting: Fasting is refraining from eating, drinking and all other things that may invalidate the fast in the time between dawn and sunset. The intention to fast has to be made before dawn. One says in the heart, ‘I intend to fast tomorrow the obligatory fast of Ramadan of this year in obedience to Allah and seeking His reward.’

Invalidators of Fasting: There are matters that invalidate the fast, some of which are:

· Eating or drinking, even if it is a tiny amount, while remembering about fasting. However, if the person eats or drinks forgetting that he is fasting, this does not invalidate his fast neither in Ramadan nor in any other day of the year. The Prophet said: “Whoever forgets that he is fasting, so he eats or drinks, let him continue his fast because Allah sustained him with food and drink.”, i.e., without his fast being invalidated. (Related by Al-Bukhariyy.)

· If a person induces vomiting on purpose, such as putting his finger down his throat, then he invalidates his fast. However, if he vomits unintentionally, then his fasting is not invalidated.

· Ear and nose drops invalidate the fast if the drops reach the head and throat. Using drops in the eyes does not invalidate the fast.

Some cases in which a person is allowed to break his fast:

· If a person is very sick and fears harm by fasting.

· If a person is traveling a long distance of about 100 kilometers.

· It is sinful for the female to fast when she is in her menstrual cycle or bleeding after having a baby, but she has to make up the days of Ramadan she missed before the next Ramadan comes.


Questions:

1. Mention an ayah from the Qur’an that orders fasting in Ramadan.

2. What is fasting?

3. What is the time of fasting?

4. What is the complete intention for fasting?

5. List some of the invalidators of the fast.

6. Does the one who eats or drink while forgetting that he is fasting invalidate his fast? Why?

7. What is the judgment if someone is overcome with vomit?

8. What is the judgment of the drops in the ear, nose, or eye?

9. Who is allowed not to fast during Ramadan?

10. What does the menstruating and post-partum bleeding woman do during fasting? What is obligated on them?


LESSON 19

ZAKAH

Allah said in the Qur’an:

Wa aqimus-salata wa atuz-Zakah.

Ayah 56 of Surat An-Nur means, “Perform the prayers and pay Zakah.”

Allah has ordered the Muslim who has money on which Zakah is due to pay a small amount from that money to the poor Muslims and others whom Allah has mentioned in the blessed Ayah:

Innamas-sadaqatu lil-fuqara’i wal-masakini wal-^amilina ^alayha wal-mu’allafati qulubuhum wa-fir-riqabi wal-gharimina wa fi sabilillahi wabnis-sabil.

Ayah 60 of Surat at-Tawbah means, “Zakah is to be paid to the faqirs, miskins, the Zakah workers, the Muslims whose hearts need reconciliation, slaves who made mukatabah contract for their freedom, Muslims who cannot pay their debts, the volunteer fighters, and the Muslim traveler who does not have enough money to return to his home town.”

1. The Faqirs: They are the Muslims who have less than half of their basic needs.

2. The Miskins: They are the Muslims who have more than half but not all of their basic needs.

3. The Zakah workers (^amiluna ^alyha): They are the Muslims appointed by the Caliph to collect the Zakah and distribute it without them being paid a salary for that job.

4. The Muslims whose hearts need reconciliation (al-mu’allafatu qulubuhum): They are Muslims such as the new Muslims who did not yet get used to the other Muslims.

5. Slaves who made contracts to buy their freedom (ar-riqab): They are the Muslim slaves who made contracts with their masters to sell them their freedom, but they were not able to pay the amount of money upon which the agreements were made.

6. Muslims who cannot pay their debts (gharimun): They are Muslims who have lawful debts to pay, but do not have enough money to pay it.

7. The volunteer fighters (fi sabilillah): They are the Muslim fighters who volunteer to fight the enemy, for the sake of Allah, without being paid for that from the treasury.

8. The Muslim traveler who does not have enough money to return to his hometown (ibnus-sabil): This is the Muslim who passes by the town of Zakah without having the means to get to his destination or return to his hometown.

Zakah of Fitr is an obligation on the one who has enough on the day of the ^Id and the night after it to meet his debts, clothing, lodging, sustenance and the sustenance, of those whom he must support, such as his Muslim wife, non-pubescent children, and parents if they are poor. It is valid to pay the zakah of fitr during Ramadan and it is prohibited to delay it without an excuse until after the sunset of the day of ^Id. Once paying this zakah is due on someone then one must pay it for oneself, his wife, young children, slaves, and poor parents.

He pays for each person a sa^ of the dominant staple crop of his area. A sa^ is the fill of two pairs of medium-sized hands cupped together. Zakah of Fitr can only be paid to a poor Muslim or any of the others who deserve Zakah.


Questions:

1. State an ayah from the Qur’an that orders us to pay the Zakah?

2. State an ayah from the Qur’an that shows the types of those who deserve the Zakah.

3. What is meant by the faqirs?

4. What is meant by the miskin?

5. What is meant by the ^amiluna ^alyha?

6. What is meant by the mu’allafatu qulubuhum?

7. What is meant by the riqab?

8. What is meant the gharimun?

9. What is meant by fi sabilillah?

10. What is meant by ibnus-sabil?

11. What is the amount of Zakah of Fitr?

12. What is a sa^?


CHAPTER ON ISLAMIC MANNERS


LESSON 1

INSINCERITY

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

Inna akhwafa ma akhafu ^alaykum ash-shirkul-asghar.

This hadith means: “Certainly, I fear most for you to commit the smaller shirk.” The Companions asked, “What is the smaller shirk, O Messenger of Allah?” The Messenger of Allah answered, “Insincerity.” (Related by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.)

Insincerity (Riya) is doing the good deed to gain praise from the people. This is the opposite of sincerity (ikhlas) in obeying Allah. Sincerity is to do acts of worship and obey Allah to gain His reward alone. The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

Innamal-a^malu binniyyat.

This hadith means, “The good deeds are accepted when done with proper intentions.” (Related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)

So, if the pubescent Muslim does the prayers so that the people will say good things about him such as ‘this person prays a lot’ or ‘this person is a very good Muslim’, he will not be rewarded for his prayers even though he does them all. Instead he has fallen into the sin of Riya, because he did an act of worship to please the people.

Similarly, if a person fasts so that people say about him “he is detached from worldly matters and is a good worshipper” he is insincere in his fasting. His fasting is valid, however, he is sinful and has no reward for his fasting.

Similarly every act of obedience done for the praise of people is an enormous sin and not rewardable. The Muslim must do the obedience such as praying and fasting for the sake of Allah only.


Questions:

1. State a hadith that warns against insincerity (riya).

2. What is insincerity (riya)?

3. What is sincerity (ikhlas)?

4. State a hadith that urges the Muslims to be sincere. Who narrated it?

5. Give the meaning of the hadith:

Innamal-a^malu binniyyat.

6. When the accountable Muslim prays and fasts to get the praise of the people, will he have a reward? Is this permissible? What is this called? Is his deed valid?

7. What should one intend with his good deeds?


LESSON 2

GOSSIP AND FABRICATION

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

Dhikruka akhaka bima yakrah.

In a hadith, the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, asked what means, “Do you know what gossip is?” The Companions answered, “Allah and His Messenger know best.” The Prophet said, “Your mentioning about you Muslim brother whatever he does not like.” The Companions asked, “Is it still gossip even if what I mention about my brother is true?” The Prophet answered, “If you mention about him what is true of him, then you did gossip; but if you mention about him what is not true of him, then you have done fabrication (buhtan). (Related by Muslim.)

In this hadith, the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, defined two kinds of sins of the tongue. They are: gossiping (ghibah) and fabrication (buhtan).

So, gossip is to talk about your Muslim brother, behind his back, about things that are true of him that he does not like to be said about him. For example, if one Muslim said about another Muslim, “So-and-so is one-eyed,” and that person does not like any one to say this about him then the speaker has done the sin of gossip (ghibah).

On the other hand, buhtan is to talk about one’s Muslim brother behind his back that which he does not like and is not true of him. For example, if a Muslim said about his Muslim brother, behind his back, ‘So-and-so is a liar’, which is not true of that person, then the speaker has done fabrication (buhtan). This is a bigger sin than gossiping.

A Muslim must not hurt other Muslims. A Muslim should also have good manners. Also, if he sees a defect in his Muslim brother, he should cover it up and not expose it to other people.

Gossip and fabrication make Muslims angry with each other and may result in hatred between family members and friends. For these reasons it is important that no one falls into gossip or fabrication.


Questions:

1. State a hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, that warns against gossiping.

2. What is gossip (ghibah)? Give an example.

3. What is fabrication (buhtan)? Give an example.

4. Which of these two sins is bigger?


LESSON 3

HONESTY AND LYING

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

Innas-sidqa yahdi ilal-birr(i), wa innal-birra yahdi ilal-Jannah. Wa innar-rajula layasduqu hatta yuktaba ^indal-lahi siddiqa. Wa innal-kadhiba yahdi ilal-fujur wa innal-fujura yahdi ilan-nar. Wa innar-rajula layakdhibu hatta yuktaba ^indal-lahi kadhdhaba.

This hadith means, “Truthfulness leads to piety and piety leads to Paradise. The Muslim who continues to be truthful will then be recorded as a truthful person. Lying leads to bad deeds and bad deeds lead to Hellfire. The Muslim who continues to lie will be then recorded in the bad books of Allah as a liar.” (Related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)

In this honorable saying, the Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, urged us to speak the truth and warned us against lying. Lying is saying what is different from the truth. This act is forbidden in serious and joking matters.

If a Muslim says what is different from the truth, knowing this, then he has fallen into the sin of lying. An example of a lie is for a person to say, ‘I hit that person’ when the truth is he did not do it.

If a lie causes harm to another Muslim, then this is a great sin.

So, it is important to train your tongue to speak the truth and to avoid lying. Lying is an ugly habit. There are many people who have the habit of lying a lot, making others call them liars and unable to trust them.

Remember that our Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, never said a lie in his life, making his people call him truthful and trustworthy (as-Sadiq, al-‘Amin).


Questions:

1. State a hadith of the Prophet that urges people to tell the truth and warns against lying.

2. What is lying? What is its judgment?

3. What is the judgment of lying if it involves harming a Muslim?

4. What was the Prophet known and called among his people?


LESSON 4

STEALING AND TRUSTWORTHINESS

Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur’an:

Was-sariqu was-sariqatu faqta^u aydiyahuma jaza’am bima kasaba nakalam min Allah.

Ayah 38 of Suratul-Ma’idah means, “Cut the hands of the male and female thief as a punishment from Allah to what they did.”

Stealing is to take another person’s belongings or money stealthily and without the owner’s approval. This is a sin and a harmful illness in the society.

When a person has a weak faith and sees someone else’s belongings or money, he may be tempted to take of it. For example, this person may say to himself, ‘I will take only a small amount of it. The owner is rich and he will not miss the small amount I have taken.’ Or he may say to himself, ‘If the money box is open in front of me then I will take from it what I want and no one will know about it.’ He may also say, ‘My friends wear new clothes, why shouldn’t I take some money to buy for myself clothes like theirs and shoes like theirs.’

A person must watch himself closely and beware of the whispers of the devil. The devil wants people to do sins and to wrong others and to take their money unrightfully. This may lead to a scandal for the person who steals and may lead him to prison and to other consequences. This is besides the punishment that he deserves in the Hereafter.


Questions:

1. State an ayah from the Qur’an that forbids stealing.

2. What is stealing?

3. Is it permissible to take another person’s money without his approval?

4. What would the person that has weak faith say to himself if he sees someone else’s belongings?

5. What are the consequences of taking others belongings unrightfully?


LESSON 5

IMMENSE HARMING OF THE PARENTS (^UQUQ)

The Prophet, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation for that which he fears for it, said:

La yadkhulul-Jannata ^aqq.

This hadith means, “The person who commits ^uquq against his parents will not be among the first to enter Paradise.” (Related by al-Bukhariyy.)

^Uquq against one’s parents means to hurt the parents immensely in any way, causing them a lot of pain. For example, to hit them or swear at them or curse them is one of the enormous sins.

Among ^uquq against one’s parents is for one to help the father wrong the mother or to help the mother wrong the father. This is also forbidden and is among the greatest of sins.

One’s ^uquq against the mother is a worse sin than one’s ^uquq against the father. On the other hand, kind treatment of the mother is more rewarding than kind treatment of the father.

Kind treatment of both parents is an Islamic obligation. If the child obeys both parents in everything except what is forbidden by Allah, the child will be rewarded greatly by Allah, the Exalted.

It has been related by Ibn ^Umar that once he saw a man carrying his mother on his back. This man asked Ibn ^Umar “I have helped my mother do Hajj carrying her on my back the whole time. Have I repaid her everything I owe her?” ^Adbullah Ibn ^Umar replied, “You have not even repaid one of the birth pains when she was giving birth to you."

So be careful to always obey both of your parents and stay away from the ugly sin of ^uqua against them.


Questions:

1. State a hadith of the Prophet that forbids immense harming to the parents (^uquq).

2. Give the meaning of the hadith:

La yadkhulul-jannata ^aqq.

3. What is ^uquq against one’s mother or father?

4. Which is a worse and bigger sin: ^uquq against one’s mother or one’s father?

5. Which is more rewarding the kind treatment of one’s mother or one’s father?


LESSON 6

KEEPING TIES WITH KINSHIP

In asking Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, a question, a companion of the Prophet, said, “O Messenger of Allah, guide me to a deed that will grant me Paradise if I do it.” The Prophet replied,

At^imit-ta^ama, wa-sili-l’arhama, wa salli bil-layli wan-nasu niyamun tadkhuli-jannata bisalam.

This hadith means: “Feed the poor, keep ties with your kinship and pray at night while people are asleep, you shall enter Paradise in peace.” (Related by Ibn Hibban.)

This hadith tells us that if the Muslim does these deeds he shall enter Paradise without being punished. One of these deeds is to keep ties with his kinship.

Kinship is every relative from the father’s side or the mother’s side of the family. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

“La yadkhulul-jannata qati^.” (Related by al-Bukhariyy.)

The person who breaks ties with his or her kinship will not be among the first to enter Paradise.

Keeping ties with kinship means for the person to visit relatives and to write to those whom he could not visit and to help the needy among them. It is forbidden to remain disconnected from your relatives for a long time, like failing to visit them in Ramadan or both ^Ids or in happy or sad occasions or any other occasions. A Muslim who distances himself from relatives for a long time, making them feel alienated is not keeping ties with them.

Visiting relatives who do not visit you is not a demeaning or low act on your part. It is, in fact, an act of goodness and obedience to Allah, the Exalted. So be sure to visit your relatives, to be close to them, to show them love and kindness, and to help them to do good deeds.


Questions:

1. State a hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, that urges keeping the ties with kinship.

2. Who is the kinship?

3. Mention a hadith in which the Prophet mentioned about the one who breaks the ties with kinship. Who narrated it?

4. Give the meaning of this hadith:

La yadkhulul-Jannata qati^.

5. What is the meaning of keeping the ties with the kinship?


LESSON 7

LOVING ONE ANOTHER FOR THE SAKE OF ALLAH

Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it, said:

Allah, the Exalted, said: ‘Al-mutahabbuna bijalali lahum manabiru min nuriy-yawmal-qiyamah.’”

Which means: “Allah, the Exalted, says: ‘The ones who love each other for My sake will have illuminated platforms in the Hereafter.’”

Another authentic hadith relates:

Sab^atuy yudhilluhum-ullahu yawmal-Qiamati fi dhilli-l^arshi yawma la dhilla illa dhilluh.

Which means: “Allah will protect seven kinds of people from the strong heat of the sun on the Day of Judgment, by placing them under the shade of the Grand ^Arsh.” One of the seven is “Two people who love one another for the sake of Allah.”

To love another for the sake of Allah is for the Muslim to love for his brother Muslim the goodness that he loves for himself. This means he does not cheat him by deeds or words. If he finds his brother Muslim in a good state, he is happy for him. However, if he finds him doing bad things he does not encourage him to continue and does not stay silent, when able to advise him. He advises him to fix his situation. For example, if he knows he is not doing his prayers, he advises him to do them and reminds him of the punishment for leaving out prayers. Also if he sees him having an ugly characteristic he advises him and helps him to quit it. If he sees he is not learned in Islam, he guides him or directs him to someone who can teach him the correct knowledge of the Religion.

It is mentioned in the hadith of Prophet Muhammad that those who love one another for the sake of Allah, shall be seated on platforms of light under the shade of the Grand ^Arsh, before they enter Paradise. They will be admired by the people, even by the Prophets and martyrs. Even though the Prophets have a higher status than anyone else does, still, when they see others with a lower status in a good state they admire them and feel happy for them for what they have been given by Allah. On the other hand the non-believers will be in pain from the heat of the sun.

Those who love one another for the sake of Allah come together to be pious and obedient to Allah and not to commit sins or evil. Their obedience to Allah brings them together leaving out all other favors of life, like matters of work or other personal needs or interests. They do not try to cheat one another or betray one another. Nor do they teach one another to be bad or unjust to others. Instead, they love one another only to seek the reward from Allah, the Exalted. So always try to be one of those people who love the others for the sake of Allah.


Questions:

1. State a qudsiyy hadith about the merit of loving one another for the sake of Allah.

2. State a hadith of the Prophet about the merit of loving one another for the sake of Allah.

3. What is loving one anther for the sake of Allah?

4. Where would the people who love one another for the sake of Allah be before they enter Paradise?

5. Why do the people who love one another for the sake of Allah come together?



[1] Sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam means:May Allah raise his rank and protect his nation from that which he fears for it. It is said after saying the name of the Prophet Muhammad. It is not part of the Two Testifications of Faith.

[2] Subhana-Rabbiyal-A^la: I declare that my God Who is High is status is clear of every imperfection and defect.

[3] The Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah is: Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad, wa ^ala Ali Muhammad, kama sallayta ^ala Ibrahim, wa ^ala Ali Ibrahim. Innaka Hamidum Majid. Allahumma barik ^ala Muhammad, wa ^ala Ali Muhammad, kama barakta ^ala Ibrahim, wa ^ala Ali Ibrahim. Innaka Hamidum Majid.