The Explanation of al-Ajirroumiyyah Based on Mufti of  Makkah Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan
شرح الآجرومية لمفتى مكة أحمد بن زينى دحلان

بسـم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Chapter One: The Speech: الكلام

  1. Definition:

The grammarians defined speech as the compounded utterance which is completely meaningful in its syntactical sequence, as per the Arabic usage according to some, or so long it is intentionally uttered according to others.

The utterance is the sound that is comprised of some of the alphabet, such as (زَيْدٌ), which is a sound comprised of the letters (زاى) and (ياء) and (دال). Hence, the sound of a drum or a bird is excluded. Likewise is excluded, even where meaningful, the signals, gestures, writing, sign language and marks.

Compounded means composed of two or more words, such as ( زيدٌ) (قَامَ ) and ( زَيدٌ قَائمٌ). Hence, the single words such as ( زيدٌ) are excluded.

Completely meaningful in its syntactical sequence means the meaning is complete for both the one who utters and the listener such as (قامَ زيدٌ) which informs about the standing up of (زَيْد).

As per the Arabic usage means the non-Arabic speech is excluded such as the speech of the Turks and the Barbar. However, according to some, it means it must be intentionally uttered, hence, the speech of the sleeping person and the absent minded is excluded. An example of what satisfies the four conditions is (قامَ زيدٌ) and (زيدٌ قائمٌ), for both are compounded utterances and are completely meaningful in their syntactical sequence as per the Arabic usage for both the one who utters and the listener. (Table 1)

 

Table 1

 

Excluded the sound of drums, birds, marks, signs

(زيد)

The sound comprised of some alphabet

(اللفظ ) utterance

(الكلام هو ) SPEECH IS COMPRISED OF

Excluded (زيد ) and what is similar

(قام زيد )

(زيد قائمٌ )

Composed of two or more words

(المركب ) compounded

Excluded (ان قام زيد )

(الاخبار بقيام زيد )

Meaningful to one who utters and listener

(المفيد ) completely meaningful

Excluded the non-Arabic speech such as the speech of Turks and Barbar and others

 

Per Arabic usage or intentionally uttered

(بالوضع )

Excluded is the speech of the sleeping person and the absent minded

 

 

  1. Parts of the Speech:

The speech consists of three parts: the noun (اسمٌ ), the verb (فعلٌ ) and the particle which has signification (حرف جاء لمعنى ). (Table 2)

The noun (اسم) is a self-meaningful word detached of a time element such as (زيد) it indicates a self called Zayd irrespective of the past, present or future.

The verb (فعل) is a self-meaningful word attached to a time element; if the word attaches to a past time item it is a perfect tense (فعل ماض), and if it attaches to a time that accepts the present or the future then it is an imperfect tense (فعل مضارع), and if it attaches to demanding a matter in the future then it is an imperative tense (فعل امر). An example of the perfect tense is (ضَرَبَ ) , the imperfect tense (يضربُ ), the imperative tense (اضربْ ).

  1. The Parts and Signs of the Noun, Verb and Particle

 

The particle which has signification (حرف جاء لمعنى ) is the particle that has a meaning such as (هل ) it means inquiring and (لم ) it means negating. Hence the letters of construction of the words are excluded such as the (زاي ) and (ياء ) and (دال ) that comprise the word (زيد ).

 

Table 2

 

Signifies a person called zayd at all times

(زيد )

A self-meaningful word irrespective of the time element

(اسم )

noun

( أقسام الكلام ثلاثة)

The speech consists of three parts

Perfect imperfect imperative

(ضَرَبَ )

(يَضْرِبُ )

(اَضربْ )

A self-meaningful word attached to the time element

(فعل )

verb

Inquisitive negating

(هل )

(لم )

A word signifying a meaning outside itself

(حرف جاء لمعنى )

Article which has signification

 

Hence, the speech does not go beyond there three parts, however it does not have to be composed of al three, for it may be composed of two nouns such as (زيدٌ قائمٌ ).

The parts of the noun (الاسم ) are three: explicit (مظهر ) such as (زيد ), inexplicit (مضمر ) such as (هو ), and ­­ambiguous ( ) such as ( ).

 

Table 3

 

Zayd

(زيد )

The significance of its meaning is evident

(مُظهر )

explicit

( أقسام الاسم ثلاثة)

The parts of the noun are three

He

(هو )

The significance of its meaning is hidden

(مُضْمَرٌ )

inexplicit

This

( هذا)

Requires a demonstrative pronoun that points to its meaning

( مُبهم)

ambiguous

 

The noun (الاسمُ) is known by (khaf­d: خفض), by (tanwin: تنوين), by the addition of (the article of definition: أل) and by (the particles of khafd: حروف الخفض)

Table 4

 

(مررت بزيدٍ)

A specific change of the end of the word denoted by kasrah or its agents

(الخفض )

The khafd

(علامات الاسم )

The signs of the noun

( صربت زيداً )

The attribution of a quiescent unwritten (n:ن ) that attaches to the end of the word

(تنوين )

Tanwin

(الرجل )

The addition of (أل ) the article of definition

(دخول أل )

Addition of article of definition

( سافرت من البصرة الى الكوفةِ)

The addition of the particles of khafd

(دخول حروف الخفض )

addition of the particles of khafd

 

The particles of khafd are:

(مِنْ): among its meanings is stating: (سافرت من البصرة الى الكوفةِ)

(الَى): among its meanings is ending: (سافرت من البصرة الى الكوفةِ)

(عن ): among its meanings is to go beyond: (رميتُ السهمَ عن القوسِ )

(على): among its meanings is above ness: (ركبتُ على الفرسِ)

(فى ): among its meanings is time or space qualifier: (الماء فى الكوز )

(رب ): among its meanings is decreasing: (ربَّ رجُلٍ كريمٍ لقيتَه )

(الباء ): among its meanings is passing by: (مررتُ بزيدٍ )

(الكاف ): among its meanings is resemblance: (زيدٌ كالبدرِ )

(اللام): among its meanings is ownership: (المالُ ازيدٍ)

Add to those the particles of adjuration: (حروف القسم )

(الواو ): (واللهِ )

(الباء ): requires the verb of adjuration: (اقسِمُ بالله )

(التاء ): (تاللهِ )

The tanwin (التنوين )

Linguistically, ( the tanwin  التنوين ) is the sounding; the sounding of the bird is called Tanwin. Technically it is the act of articulating a quiescent (nun: ن) at the end of a noun without writing it, but it is expressed by doubling the fathah, kasrah or dammah, such as (جاء زيدٌ , رأيت زيداً , مررتُ بزيدٍ). Hence, excluded are the inflected (nun: ن) such as (رَعْشَنَ), the (nun: ن) at the beginning such as (انكسرَ), the (nun: ن) in the middle such as (منكسر), and the light (nun: ن) of confirmation such as (لنسفعن).

The tanwin (التنوين) has four cases:

  1. The tanwin of foundation: ( تنوين التمكين): it attaches to the inflected nouns. Those nouns that are acted upon by tanwin are said to be strong rooted in the nominative case and more founded in it than others such as ( زيدٌ) and ( رجلٌ). The nouns that are not acted upon by tanwin are strong rooted in the nominative case but not more founded such as ( ابراهيم) and ( احمد).
  2. The tanwin of equivalence (تنوين المقابلة): it attaches to the sound feminine plural (جمع المؤنث السالم) such as (جاءت مسلماتٌ), and the tanwin in it is equivalent to the (nun: ن) in the sound masculine plural (جاء المسلمونَ).
  3. The tanwin of replacement (تنوين العوض): it attaches to (إذ) in (يومئذٍ) and (حيتئذٍ). It is a replacement for a statement; Allah said (وأنتم حينئذٍ تنظرون), and the origin of the statement is (وأنتم حين إذ بلغتِ الروحُ الحلقومَ تنظرون), so the statement (بلغتِ الروحُ الحلقومَ) was eliminated and a tanwin was attached in its place and it became (حينئذٍ).
  4. The tanwin of indefiniteness (تنوين التنكير): it attaches to the non-inflected nouns to distinguish between what is definite (معرفة) and what is indefinite (نكرة). The nouns that are acted upon by tanwin are indefinite (نكرة) such as (جَاءَ سيبويهٍ), and those that are not acted upon by tanwin are definite (معرفة) such as (جاءَ سيبويهِ).

The causes that prohibit the tanwin ( موانع التنوين):

There are nine cases that finder the tanwin from attaching. Each case consists of two cases except for one where one cause acts for two.

  1. Nominal and non-Arabic ( العلمية والعُجمى): such as ( مررتُ بابراهيمَ). (ابراهيم) is a noun and non-Arabic, therefore tanwin does not attach.
  2. Nominal and compounded acronym (العلمية والُتركيب المزجى): such as (محمد يكرب, بعل بك), it is a noun and compounded from other words, hence tanwin does not attach.
  3. Nominal and conversion (العلمية والعدول): such as (عُمَر), it is a noun and it is said to be converted from (عَامِر), hence tanwin does not attach.
  4. Nominal and addition of alif and nun (العلمية و زيادة الف و نون): such as (مررتُ بعثمانَ) (عثمان) is a noun and it has an (alif: الف) and (nun: ن) added to it.
  5. Nominal and the feminine case (العلمية والتأنيث ): such as (مررت بفاطمةَ وطَلْحَة وهَجَرَ ). (فاطمة ) (طلحة) and (هجر) are nouns in the feminine case, hence tanwin does not attach to them.
  6. Nominal and verb form (العلمية ووزن الفعل): such as (مررت باحمدَ ويشكر ويزيدَ). All these (احمد, يشكر, يزيد) are nouns that bear the grammatical forms of verbs (افعل, يفعل, فعيل), hence tanwin does not attach to them.
  7. Adjective and addition of alif and nun (الوصفية و زيادة الف و نون): such as (مررت بسكرانَ). The word (سكران) is an adjective and has alif and nun added to it, hence tanwin does not attach to it.
  8. Adjective and conversion (الوضعية و العدل): such as (مررت بأُخَرَ). The word (أُخرَ ) the plural of (أُخرى ) describes a meaning contained in others and it is said to be converted from (أُخْرَى ) the feminine case of (أَخَر ), hence tanwin does not attach.
  9. One cause acting for two ( علة تقوم مقام علتين): such as (حبلَى ) and (حمراءَ ) that have the mamdud form of ending in a long alif followed by a hamzah (ا ء ) or the maqsur for ending in a long vowel alif, and such as (مساجد ) and (مصابيحَ ) that have the form of (مفاعل ) or (مفاعيل ). These latter two forms are called the form reflecting ultimate plurality (صيغة منتهى الجموع).

 

The element of prohibition of tanwin is applicable if the word does not fall as an annexation (اضافة ) or after (أل ). If the word is annexed such as (مررت بأفضلِكم ) then it is inflected, or after (أل ) such as (والافضلِ ).

 

The verb is of three tenses only: (the perfect: الماضى) such as (ضَرَبَ) (the imperfect: المضارع) such as (يَضْرِبُ) and the (imperative: الامرُ) such as (اضربْ).

Table 5

 

(ضَرَبَ )

Denotes an incident that is and over with.

(ماضٍ ) perfect

(اقسام الفعل ثلاثة )

The parts of the verb are three.

(يَضْرِبُ )

Denotes an incident taking place now and in the future.

(مضارع ) imperfect

(اضربْ )

Denotes an incident demanded in the future.

(امر ) imperative

 

The verb is known by (قد ), (السين ), (سوف ) and the quiescent (ت ) of the feminine gender.

(قد) is used with the perfect tense to denote an incident assumingly done and over with such as (قد قامَ زيدٌ), or to denote the incident has just happened such as (قد قامتِ الصلاةُ); also it is used with the imperfect tense to denote little in occurrence such as (قد يجودُ البحيلُ), or to denote frequent in occurrence such as (قد يجودُ الكريمُ).

(السين) is used with the imperfect tense to denote the incident will happen shortly after such as (سيقومُ زيدٌ).

(سوف ) is used with the imperative tense to denote the incident will happen later in the future such as (سوفَ يقومُ زيدٌ ) . The quiescent (ت ) of the feminine gender is used with the perfect tense to denote the feminine gender such as (قامَتْ هندٌ ).

 

Table 6

 

With perfect it denotes (1) assuredly done and over (قد قام زيدٌ) (2) has happened shortly before. (قد قامت الصلاة)

Used with the perfect and imperfect tenses

(قد)

qad

(علامات الفعل)

The signs of the verb

With imperfect it denotes (1) less frequent to happen
(قد يجود البخيل) (2) more frequent occurrence
( قد يجود الكريم)

--------------------

shortly after. (سيقوم زيدٌ)









-------------------- Used with the imperfects tense

 

 

 



--------------------
(السين)

sin

 

Occurrence later in the future (سوف يقوم زيدٌ)

Used with the imperfect tense

(سوف)

sawfa

Occurrence done by feminine gender (قامتْ هندٌ)

Used with the perfect tense

(دخول تاء التأنيث الساكنة)  quiescent (ت)

 

The particle is also of three parts, one part is common to the nouns and the verbs such as (هل قامَ زيدٌ ) and (هل زيدٌ قائمٌ ), and a part specific to the nouns such as (مررت بزيدٍ ), and a part specific to the verbs such as (لم يضربْ زيدٌ ). Moreover, neither the signs of the noun nor the signs of the verb apply to the particle. Hence the sign of the particle is a no sign: (عدمية) as Al-Hariri indicated in (مُلحة الإعراب) و الحرف ما ليست له علامة   فقس على قولى تكن علَّامة