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The Jewels of

Faith

In the Holy Month Ramadan

1st Edition

1427 – 2006

Darulfatwa - Islamic High Council

Contents

How Ramadan starts

Fasting the month of Ramadan

Who must fast

Integrals of fasting

Types of Blasphemy

Obligations upon the one not fasting

Recommended Deeds while fasting

The Night of Qadr

Zakah of Fitr

Recepients of Zakah

^Id prayer

Recommended acts on the day of ^Id

Takbirs of ^Id

Meaning of Takbirs

 

How the Month of Ramadan Starts

 

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and may Allah raise the rank of our Master Muhammad, and protect his nation from what he fears for it. Fasting Ramadan is among the best acts of obedience, among the greatest deeds, and one of the most important matters of Islam. The scholars of the four schools of thought (Madhahib) agreed that the basis for determining the beginning of Ramadan is as follows:

The crescent is observed with the naked eye after the sunset of the 29th day of Sha^ban. If the crescent is sighted, then the following day will be the first day of Ramadan. If the crescent was not in view, then the next day will be the 30th day of Sha^ban and the following day will be the beginning of Ramadan.

Muslims in all countries around the world have implemented this practice in determining the beginning and the end of Ramadan and highly knowledgeable scholars have ruled accordingly. Moreover, they have stated that reliance should be placed on this rule and no attention be given to the sayings of mathematicians and astronomers. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said what means:

[Begin fasting Ramadan upon seeing the crescent and end it upon seeing the crescent of the following month. But if the crescent is blocked from view, then fast for 30 days]

(Narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, Imam Muslim in his Sahih and Imam an-Nasa’iyy and Ibn Majah in their Sunan through the route of Abu Hurayrah)

Al-Bukhariyy, Muslim, and others narrated through the route of ^Abdullah Ibn ^Umar, may Allah raise his rank, that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means:

[The lunar month is 29 nights, so do not fast until you sight the crescent. But if the crescent was blocked from view, then complete the count to 30]

Imam Ahmad, Imam Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'iyy all narrated that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said what means:

[We do not rely on writings or calculations to determine the beginning or the end of the month. The month is either 29 or 30 days]

 

The following are some statements from the four madhahib (schools of thought):

From the Shafi^iyy School:

In his book Asna Al-Matalib Sharh Rawd Attalib, Shaykh Zakariyya Al-Ansariyy, who died in 925 AH, said what means:

The calculations of the astronomer have no significance. They do not determine the obligation of fasting and it is a sin to rely on them for that purpose. Surat An-Nahl, Verse 16 refers to deducing the direction of the Qiblah.

From the Hanafiyy School:

Ibn ^Abidin, who died in 1252 AH, in his annotations on ‘Ad-dur Al-Mukhtar’, a  wellknown book, said what means:

The statement of the astronomers is not taken into consideration. Moreover, the book ‘Al-Mi^raj’ states: Their sayings are not taken into consideration by scholarly consensus and it is not permissible for the astronomer to fast relying on his own calculation. (Volume 3, p 354, Published by Darul-Kutub Al ^ilmiyyah)

From the Malikiyy School:

Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Mayyarah Al- Malikiyy, who died in 1072 AH, in ‘Addur Ath- Thamin’ said that Ash-Shahab Al-Qarafiyy, who died in 684 AH, related that Sanad, who in turn died in 541 AH, said what means:

If an Imam (Muslim ruler) declared the beginning of fasting based upon calculations, then the Muslims must not follow him, because the Salaf agreed by scholarly consensus that determining Ramadan by calculations is invalid. (p 327, published by Darul-Fikr)

In ‘Ash-Sharh al-Kabir’ Shaykh Ahmad ad- Dardir al-Malikiyy, who died in 1201 AH, from the school of Imam Malik, said what means: It is stated that the beginning of Ramadan is not confirmed by the saying of an astronomer, neither for himself nor for others. (Volume 1, p 462)

From the Hanbaliyy School:

In his book, ‘Kashshaf Al-Qina^’, Al-Buhutiyy al-Hanbaliyy, who died in 1051 AH, who is among the famous Hanbaliyy scholars, said what means:

If one intended to fast the 30th day of Sha^ban without lawful evidence, then one’s fasting is invalid. This means if one’s fasting was based upon calculations or astronomy rather than on sighting the crescent or completing Sha^ban (if the crescent is blocked from view), then one’s fasting is invalid, even if calculations or the sayings of astronomers regarding the new moon often coincide with the observed beginning of Ramadan, or after a clear night. Later, if he knew that the day he fasted was actually the first day of Ramadan; his fasting was still invalid because it was not based on religiously acceptable means to commence with. (Volume 2, p 302, published by: DarulFikr)

Conclusion Clearly, the Scholars of the four schools agree that no consideration should be given to the sayings of the astrologers, astronomers and/or mathematicians for determining the beginning and end of the month of Ramadan. Moreover, many scholars conveyed the scholarly consensus on this ruling. Reliance should be placed upon sighting the crescent or completing 30 days of Sha^ban as mentioned by many numbers of scholars within these schools.

We advise every Muslim to abide by the sayings mentioned by the fuqaha’ of the four schools. The Muslim nation unanimously agreed on the high rank and integrity of those scholars. Let the Muslim learn the rules of fasting by studying under someone who possesses both knowledge and trustworthiness and is someone who has acquired the knowledge from another trustworthy and knowledgeable person, and so on until the continuous chain reaches right back to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

Fasting the Month of Ramadan

Fasting the month of Ramadan is an obligatory and great worship. It is among the best acts of obedience. In fasting there is a great reward. The obligation of fasting Ramadan on the believers is known from the Qur’an and the Hadith. Verse no 183 of Surat al-Baqarah means:

Oh believers, fasting is an obligation upon you, as it was ordained upon the Muslim nations before you, to help you become pious.

Fasting was an obligation on the nations before the nation of Prophet Muhammad. However, fasting the month of Ramadan in particular is a specification for the nation of Prophet Muhammad only. Consequently, for the one who has learned of its obligation, renouncing the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan is blasphemy because it entails belying Allah and the Prophet.

Who Must Fast Ramadan

Every accountable Muslim is obligated to fast the month of Ramadan. A young child is not obligated to fast. However, it is an obligation on the guardian of the child to order him or her to fast once the child reaches 7 (lunar) years of age, with the condition that the child’s body can withstand fasting without being harmed. For one to be obligated to fast, one must be of sound mind. Fasting is not obligatory on the insane person. Fasting is not obligatory on a person whose body cannot tolerate fasting, either due to old age or severe illness. The one who is travelling a walking distance of two or more days (about 80 miles or 130 kilometres) is permitted to break their fast, provided his reason for traveling is not sinful. However, one must make up the missed days. Fasting is not obligatory on the menstruating woman, or the woman who has postpartum bleeding. In fact, it is unlawful for them to fast. The woman who missed days of fasting during Ramadan for these reasons has to make up the missed days. The pregnant woman is permitted to break her

fast if she fears harm may come to her or her baby from fasting. This includes the breastfeeding woman as well. She is permitted to break her fast if she fears harm may come to her or her baby from fasting. Both must make up every missed day of fasting.

Integrals of fasting

It is obligatory to make the intention each night to fast the following day of Ramadan. This means to have the intention in one's heart to fast during the night preceding the fasting day (i.e. after the sunset and before the dawn of the following day). If the menstrual or postpartum bleeding of a woman stopped at night, then she must intend to fast the following day. One must abstain between dawn and sunset from inserting any substance into the head or body cavity through an open inlet excluding one’s pure tahir saliva while still inside the mouth. The open inlets of the body are the mouth, nose, anus, vagina, and others. One must also abstain from sexual intercourse and masturbation. One's fasting is invalidated by forcing oneself to vomit either by inserting the finger into the mouth or otherwise. Finally, the Muslim must abstain at all times from committing apostasy (i.e. committing any types of blasphemy), which takes him out of Islam. Apostasy invalidates fasting, even if one returns to Islam immediately afterwards. After returning to Islam, one must abstain from eating and other invalidators of fasting during the whole day. Moreover, one must make up the invalidated day(s) of fasting after Ramadan.

Types of Blasphemy

Scholars of the four schools (madhahib) classified apostasy into three categories. These are beliefs in the heart, actions committed by certain parts of the body, and sayings with the tongue. Ar-Ramliyy, from the school of Imam ash-Shafi^iyy, classified apostasy into these three categories and gave examples of each in his book 'Explanation of Minhaj' as did Imam an-Nawawiyy in his book 'Rawdat at-Talibin'. Qadi ^Iyad and Imam Muhammad ^illaysh from the Malikiyy school gave examples of these three types of apostasy. Likewise did Ibn ^Abidin and Badrur-Rashid from the Hanafiyy school and Al-Buhutiyy from the Hanbaliyy school. Ibn as-Subkiyy said in his book 'At-Tabaqat': Imam Al-Ash^ariyy, his students and all Muslims agree upon considering a blasphemer (kafir) he who says a blasphemous word or commits a blasphemous act. He is not a believer in Allah, and he shall remain in Hellfire forever if he dies in that state, even if he knew the truth in his heart. This is a case of scholarly consensus (Ijma^), not even two Muslims would disagree on this matter. The muhaddith hafidh, faqih and linguist Murtada az-Zabidiyy said: The scholars from the four schools (madhahib) exposed the three types of apostasy. Each one of these three categories of apostasy is divided into many subdivisions, and the scholars gave many examples of each.

Apostate Beliefs

Examples of the first category of apostasy are:

• To believe that anything other than Allah exists without a beginning. Only Allah exists without a beginning and His attributes are eternal and everlasting and do not change. Everything else is a creation of Allah and has a beginning to its existence. Qadi ^Iyad, al- Mutawalli, Ibn Hajar al-^Asqalaniyy, and others established the scholarly consensus (Ijma^) on the blasphemy of he who believes the world exists without a beginning.

• Renouncing any of the attributes of Allah commonly known among the Muslims that He is attributed with, such as knowing about everything, is blasphemy. Also renouncing that Allah is attributed with Power, Will, Knowledge, Hearing, Sight, or Life is blasphemy. Renouncing any of these attributes of Allah is blasphemous because the mind alone is sufficient in knowing that Allah must be attributed with these attributes (i.e. these attributes are a condition for the status of Godhood and as such, one is not excused by ignorance). Ibn al-Jawziyy said: There is scholarly consensus on the blasphemy of he who negates Allah has Power over everything.

• He who believes that Allah resembles any of His creations in His Self, Attributes, or Actions has blasphemed. The one who believes that Allah is a body or light, or believes that Allah exists ‘above’ in the heavens, or that He sits on the ^Arsh (Throne) is a blasphemer. All these are attributes of the creation and are non-befitting to be attributed to the Creator. Had Allah been attributed with such attributes, He would have similar ones to those among His creations. Verse no 11 in surat ash-Shura means:

{Nothing is like Him in any way}

 

If Allah had been a body, He would have been susceptible to the things all bodies are susceptible to, such as change, divisibility, needing to occupy a space, and annihilation. All of these are indications of shortage or weakness and non-befitting to attribute to Allah.

Apostate Actions

The second category of apostasy (i.e. actions committed by different parts of the body) includes:

• Prostrating to an idol

• Knowingly throwing the Book of the Qur'an in the garbage. The latter also applies to any papers containing Islamic information, or any of the names of Allah, provided the thrower knows what is in it and is conscious of this fact when throwing the paper. This was mentioned by Ibn ^Abidin and others because such an action displays mockery of the Religion.

Apostate Sayings

The third category of apostasy (i.e. the apostasy of sayings uttered with the tongue) are very numerous and uncounted. Some examples are:

• To curse Allah, any of the Prophets, or one of the angels, as stated by Qadi ^Iyad.

• To say to a Muslim: 'O blasphemer', meaning the religion of the addressed person is blasphemy, but not with the purpose of likening him to those blasphemers in behavior.

• To say: ‘Something happened without the will of Allah’.

• Also it is blasphemy for one to render lawful what is commonly known among the Muslims to be unlawful (e.g. adultery, fornication, stealing, drinking alcohol).

• To render unlawful matters commonly known among the Muslims to be lawful (e.g. selling, marriage).

The General Rule is: Any belief, action, or saying which belittles Allah, His Books, His Messengers, His Angels, His Rites, the well known practices of the Religion, His Rules, His Promise, or His Threat is blasphemy. Hence, human beings must use the utmost caution to avoid blasphemy. If a person commits apostasy, it is an obligation to immediately clear oneself of apostasy and return to Islam by uttering the Testification of Faith (two shahadahs). Although a Muslim, one is also obligated to regret having committed apostasy and to intend not to go back to a similar deed in the future.

A large number of faqihs (a faqih is the one who is authoritatively knowledgeable in the Religion) like the Hanafiyy faqih, Badr-ur-Rashid, who lived close to the eighth Hijriyy Century, and Qadi ^Iyad, may Allah ta^ala have mercy upon them, enumerated many blasphemous words one needs to know, because whoever does not know evil is more likely to fall into it.

Obligations upon the one not fasting during Ramadan

The obligation upon the one who did not fast during the month of Ramadan is classified into four categories:

1. Making up all the missed days only.

2. Making up all the missed days and paying the fidyah (expiation).

3. Paying the fidyah only.

4. Making up all the missed days and

fulfilling the kaffarah.

The first category is divided into the following:

a) The sick person.

b) The person who is travelling a walking distance of two or more days (about 80 miles).

c) The menstruating woman or the woman who has her postpartum bleeding.

d) The one who did not fast for a valid reason, or invalidated his fast by other than having sexual intercourse.

e) The pregnant or the breastfeeding woman who fears harm may come to her only due to her fasting. Each one of those must make up all the missed days without paying expiation.

The second category:

a) The pregnant or the breastfeeding woman, who fears harm may come to her baby due to fasting, must make up every missed day of fasting in addition to paying expiation. This expiation is a pair of average-sized hands cupped together filled with the most common staple food of the area for each day missed.

b) The one who did not make up the missed days until the following Ramadan.

The third category:

a) The person whose body cannot tolerate fasting due to an old age is not obligated to fast. However one pays expiation to a poor Muslim for every day of fasting missed.

b) The sick person who cannot fast due to an illness he or she is not hopeful to be cured of does not have to make up the missed days of fasting. Instead, one pays expiation to a poor Muslim for every day of fasting missed. The expiation is a pair of average-sized hands cupped together (mudd) filled with the most common staple food of the town. In Australia, the most common staple food is wheat.

The fourth category:

The man who performs sexual intercourse during the day of fasting while knowing it is unlawful to do so and remembering that he is fasting, invalidates his fast. He has to make up the missed days and fulfill the expiation which is in the following order:

1. To free a Muslim slave,

2. If unable, then to fast two consecutive lunar months, in addition to making up the day which was invalidated by his sexual intercourse;

3. If unable, then to feed 60 poor Muslims the quantity of a pair of average-sized hands cupped together (i.e. one mudd) of the most common staple food of the area.

Recommended Deeds while Fasting

It is recommended (sunnah) to break one’s fast as soon as one is sure that the maghrib (sunset) has begun. It is good to say the following statement upon breaking one’s fast what means :

[O Allah, I fasted seeking Your reward and with Your sustenance I broke my fast]

 

It is also good to delay the sahur meal until a time close to the dawn, but to stop eating before the dawn. Refraining from backbiting, cursing a Muslim, other sins, and the like is more emphasized while fasting. In committing some sins, the reward of one’s fasting might be lessened or lost. If someone curses another, let the one cursed abstain from responding with a similar curse. Instead, let him say, "I am fasting. I am fasting." Paying the optional charity to the poor, reciting the Qur’an, staying in the mosque with the intention of i^tikaf, especially during the last ten days of Ramadan, praying the Tarawih prayer, and inviting others to break their fast on food which you provide are all rewardable acts.

The Night of Qadr

The Night of Qadr is a very great night in the blessed month of Ramadan. It is “The Night of Greatness” and is considered the best night of year. During this night, Allah brought down a great Book - the Qur'an. Each year, when the Night of Qadr occurs, great angels and great mercies come down to earth. This night is not a night specific to the nation of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which occurred after the revelation to Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. It is known that the Night of Qadr occurred during Ramadan in the eras of the previous prophets. However, what is specific for the nation of Prophet Muhammad is that Allah guided them to know that the month of Ramadan would be their fasting month.

In Surat al-Qadr, The first Verse Means

 

{The whole Qur'an was brought down in its entirety during the Night of Qadr}

 

The Qur'an was copied from the Guarded Tablet and Jibril brought it down as a complete book to Baytul-^Izzah in the first sky. This occurred on the Night of Qadr in the month of Ramadan in the year that Jibril first brought the revelation to the Prophet. Then, on the next day, Jibril came with the first five verses of Suratul-^Alaq. This was the beginning of the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).

Ibn Hibban narrated from Wathilah Ibn al-‘Asqa^ that he said: The Prophet said what means: The Torah was revealed on the 6th night of Ramadan, the Injil on the 13th night, the Zabur on the 18th night, and the Qur'an on the 24th night of Ramadan. From this hadith it is known that it is not a condition that the Night of Qadr occurs on the 27th or the 29th of the month of Ramadan, although from other hadiths we know that this is most likely the case. Since the Night of Qadr may occur on any of the nights of Ramadan, the Muslims should put forth effort to pray each night of Ramadan, seeking the promised reward for the one who prays (the optional prayers) during that night. Making the extra effort in worshipping Allah especially during the last ten days of Ramadan is recommended, because in most of the cases, the Night of Qadr occurs during one of those nights.

The second verse literally means:

How would you know what the Night of Qadr is?

This means that before Allah informed you, you did not know what the merit of that Night was. This Ayah truly is a question which emphasizes the high status of this night and encourages the person to seek its goodness.

 

The third verse is the answer to the previous

question. It means:The reward one receives for praying during this night is greater than the reward received for praying one thousand months (which do not have the Night of Qadr in them).

 

The fourth verse means:

The angels (in great numbers), including Jibril, descend from the sky to the earth during that night, and Allah gives them the knowledge of what is going to happen during the coming year.

It was narrated from Abu-Hurayrah that the number of angels who would descend to earth during that night may be more than the number of pebbles on earth. Jibril, referred to as "ar-Ruh" in this verse, will be among them. Al-Hakim narrated from the Prophet that during the Night of Qadr Jibril comes down to earth with a group of angels, and they make supplication (du^a') for every slave standing up or sitting down mentioning Allah. In another narration it is mentioned that these angels descend to earth at sunset and remain until the appearance of dawn. During the Night of Qadr, Allah, tabaraka wa ta^ala, gives the angels the knowledge of what is going to happen during the coming year in what pertains to the sustenance (rizq), the changes in the situation of the slaves, and the like. This is the meaning of min kulli amr (of all the matters) in the verse. Allah informs the angels about the details of the matters which will happen in the next year including what they are ordered to do that year. The angels copy matters from the Guarded Tablet which will happen during the coming year including the births, deaths, sustenance, calamities, enjoyments, and the like.

The fifth verse means:

The night is full of safety, goodness, and blessings (for the obedient believer) until the appearance of dawn.

Among the signs that show a person that he or she witnessed the Night of Qadr are:

1) To see a great, clear light during the night other than the light of the sun, the moon, or electricity.

2) To see the trees prostrating.

3) To hear the voices of the angels.

4) To see the angels in their original form with two, three, four or more wings, or to see them in the shape of a human being (i.e. the shape of a man without genitalia).

Note: Angels never appear in the shape of a female as explicitly stated in the Qur'an.

The way the sun rises the next morning is also an indication that the previous night was the Night of Qadr. When the sun is rising, its light and heat is not intense. It is a very good sign for the person who sees the Night of Qadr and makes supplication (du^a') during it. A great gift is hoped for this person, and by the Will of Allah, the supplication would be answered. At-Tirmidhiyy narrated from ^A'ishah that she said: Oh Prophet of Allah, if I encounter the Night of Qadr, then what should I say? (What supplication should I make during it?)

The Prophet answered what means:

[Say, ‘Oh Allah, You are the One who forgives a great amount and You love forgiveness, so forgive me’.]

May Allah bless us with seeing the signs of this great Night and making supplication during it.

 

There is wisdom in hiding from the slaves exactly which night is the Night of Qadr. This is so they put forth effort during all the nights of Ramadan hoping they would acquire the reward of praying during the Night of Qadr. One would get the aforementioned multiplication of the reward promised in the verses of the Qur'an, by praying during that night, whether one prays many optional rak^ahs or a few—even two rak^ahs. Reciting for a long time during the prayer is better than reciting for a short time. If one has the choice between praying a few number of rak^ahs with a longer recitation in each and praying many rak^ahs but reciting for a short time during each rak^ah, then the first is better.

It is not a condition that one actually witnesses the signs of the Night of Qadr to get the promised reward of praying during that night. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated from the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, that the one who prays during the Night of Qadr (out of believing in Allah and seeking His reward) then Allah forgives their previous sins. Some scholars said that the one who prays the Dawn Prayer (Subh) and the Evening Prayer (^Isha') in congregation each day of Ramadan would get the reward of the Night of Qadr—even if he does not see the signs of that night. What a great reward!

Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim also narrated from ^A'ishah that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, urged the Muslims to take very special care to pray during the last ten nights of Ramadan, because most often the Night of Qadr is one of those nights. Likewise, they both narrated from ^A'ishah that she said: When the last ten nights of Ramadan started, the Prophet used to put a forth-great endeavor in worshipping during these nights. He used to pray the whole night and also wake his wives to pray.

They also related from ^A'ishah that the Prophet used to make I^tikaf (stay in the mosque during the last ten nights of Ramadan) each year until he died. Praying during all the nights of Ramadan has a great reward. Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam urged us to do that. Imam Muslim narrated from the Prophet that Allah forgives the previous sins of the one who prays all the nights of Ramadan out of believing in Allah and for His sake. O Allah, You are the One who forgives a great amount and You love forgiveness so forgive us.

Zakah of Fitr

The Zakah of Fitr is due on every Muslim who is alive for part of Ramadan and part of Shawwal (the month after Ramadan). The due Zakah for each is a sa^ (four times the quantity of a pair of average-sized hands cupped together), filled with the most common staple food of one's area.It is an obligation upon the Muslim to pay the due Zakah for oneself and one's Muslim dependants if on the day of the Feast of Fitr (^Id-ul-Fitr) and the night after it one has enough to meet their debts, clothing, lodging, and sustenance, and the sustenance of those whom one must support.

The man must pay the Zakah of Fitr for his wife, non-pubescent children, slaves, and poor Muslim parents. He may not pay for his pubescent children or solvent parents without their permission. It is permissible to pay the Fitr Zakah any time during Ramadan, even on the first night. However, it is recommended to pay it during the day of the Feast before the ^Id Prayer, because this mends the hearts of the poor people before the Prayer. It is prohibited to delay paying the Fitr Zakah until after the sunset of the day of the Feast without an excuse.

 

Recipients of Zakah

Zakah must be paid to the Muslims among the eight categories of people deserving of Zakah, who are residents in the town where the money is available. The eight categories deserving of Zakah are:

1. Those who are poor who earn less than half their basic needs (al-Fuqara').

2. Those who are poor who earn half or more but less than all their basicneeds (al-Masakin).

3. The Zakah workers who are assigned by the caliph (al-^Amilun ^Alayha).

4. The new converts to Islam whose hearts are to be reconciled (al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum).

5. The slaves who are short in satisfying their contract for purchasing their freedom from their owners (ar-Riqab).

6. Those who are unable to pay their debts (al-Gharimun).

7. The volunteer fighters (fi Sabilillah).

8. The travellers who are unable financially to reach their destination (Ibn-us-Sabil).

It is neither permissible nor valid to pay Zakah to other than those eight types of people

specifically mentioned. That is why it is not valid to pay Zakah for every charitable project such as helping build a mosque or the like.

 

 

^Id Prayer

^Id prayer can be performed in congregation, or individually any time between sunrise and noon. The best time of the ^Id prayer is after the sun has reached the height of a spear

(approximately 20 minutes from sunrise). However if one missed it one should make it up.The ^Id prayer is not preceded by the adhan (the call to announce the prayer time) or iqamah (the call to start prayer). The one who performs the ^Id prayer must satisfy the conditions and avoid the invalidators of prayer. The ^Id prayer consists of two Rak^ahs. It is initiated with the opening takbir, with the intention to perform ^Id Prayer with the Imam, followed by the opening supplication, and seven takbirs. In between each takbir of the seven takbirs one recites ‘subhanallah, walhamdulillah, wla ilaha illallah, wallahu akbar. Then one recites al-Isti^adhah (seeking refuge with Allah from the shaytan by saying ‘A^outhu billahi minash- Shaytanir-Rajeem’, Suratul-Fatihah and Surat Qaf or Suratul al-'A^la alternatively.

In the second rak^ah one says five takbirs before reciting the Fatihah followed by Suratul-Qamar or Suratul-Ghashiyah. If one started with the Fatihah leaving out any or the entire takbirs, ones prayer is still valid, however one would miss out on the reward of the takbirs. Hence one should continue with one's prayer order. After the prayer, it is recommended that the Imam delivers two speeches (same as in Friday) starting with nine takbirs in the first half of the khutbah and seven in the second. The Imam should teach the people the rules of breaking the fast, visiting one's relatives, and other significant matters pertaining to ^Id.

Recommended acts on the day of ^Id

It is sunnah on the day of ^Id to do the following:

• Take a bath before going to the prayer.

• Wear perfume.

• Clip one's fingernails.

• Wear the best of one's clothes.

• Take different routes to and from the place of prayer.

• Leave early to the mosque excluding the Imam.

• Have a light snack such as dates or the like before going to the prayer.

• Walk to the prayer place.

• Say takbirs of ^Id. This is highly recommended after the sunset of the last day of Ramadan and remains until the Imam says the opening takbir of the ^Id prayer. This includes saying takbir in one's home, the market places, mosques, and the streets.

• Congratulating one another on the day of ^Id is rewardable, as both Ibn Hajar and Al-Bayhaqiyy stated. It is sunnah to spend the night preceding the day of ^Id in acts of worship such as praying or the like. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to pray ^Id prayer consistently as it is sunnah mu'akkadah. The first ^Id prayer that the Prophet performed was in the second year after the Hijrah (migration).

Takbirs of ^Id

1. Allahu akbarullahu akbarullahu akbar,

2. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar

3. Allahu akbar wa lillahi-hamd. (3 Times)

4. Allahu akbaru kabira

5. Wal-hamdu lillahi kathira,

6. Wa subhanallahi Wa bihamdihi bukratawwaasila.

7. La ilaha illallahu wahdah,

8. Sadaqa wa^dah, wa nasara ^abdah,

9. Wa 'a^azza jundahu, Wa hazam-al-‘ahzaba wahdah

10. La ilaha illallah,

11. Wa la na^budu illa Iyyah.

12. Mukhlisina lahud-Dina

13. Wa law karihal-kafirun

14. Allahumma salli ^ala (sayyidina) Muhammad,

15. Wa^ala ali (sayyidina) Muhammad,

16. Wa^ala as-habi (sayyidina) Muhammad,

17. Wa^ala ansari (sayyidina) Muhammad,

18. Wa^ala azwaji (sayyidina) Muhammad,

19. Wa^ala dhurriyyati (sayyidina) Muhammadiw-Wa sallim tasliman kathira.

20. Rabbigh-fir li wali-walidayya rabbir-hamhuma kama rabbayani saghira.

Meaning of the ^Id Takbirs

1. Allah is Great

2. No one is God except Allah.

3. Allah is Great and Praise is due to Allah.

4. Allah is Great.

5. Many praise is due to Allah.

6. Praise to Allah in the morning and in theevening.

7. No one is God except Allah

8. He fulfilled His promise and gave victory to His slave.

9. He strengthened His soldiers and He alone defeated the Ahzab.

10. No one is God except Allah.

11. We do not worship anyone but Him.

12. Our worship is dedicated only to Him.

13. Even if the non-believers hate it.

14. We ask Allah to raise the status of (our master) Muhammad,

15. And the Al (Muslim wives and relatives) of our (master) Muhammad,

16. And the sahabah (Companions) of (our master) Muhammad.

17. And the Ansar (The people of Madinah who supported the Prophet) of (our master)

Muhammad,

18. And the wives of (our master) Muhammad,

19. And the descendents of (our master) Muhammad, and save the (Muslim) Nation of

(our master) Muhammad.

20. Oh Allah forgive me and my parents, and have mercy on them for the great efforts they exerted in raising me.