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The Purificatory Bath (Ghusl)
Among the conditions of prayer is purification from the state of major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) by performing the purificatory bath. Dry purification (tayammum) is performed when one cannot perform ghusl.

مِنْ شُرُوطِ الصَّلاَةِ: الطهارَةُ مِنَ الحَدَثِ الأكبر بالغُسْلِ أو التيمُّمِ لِمَنْ عَجَزَ عَنِ الغُسْلِ.
والذى يُوْجِبُ الغسل  خَمْسَةُ أَشْيَاءَ: خُرُوجُ المنىِّ. والجِمَاعُ. والحيضُ والنّـِفَاسُ والوِلادة.

One is required to perform the purificatory bath after any of these five things occur:

1. The emission of maniyy (Spermal fluid);
2. Sexual intercourse (Jima^);
3. Termination of menses (Hayd);
4. Termination of postpartum bleeding (Nifas);
5. Childbirth (Wilada).

 

Integrals of the Purificatory Bath (Ghusl)

فُرُوضُ الغُسْلِ اثْنَانِ. نِيةُ رَفْعِ الحَدَثِ الأكبرِ أو نحوُها ، وتعميمُ جميعِ البَدَنِ بَشَرًا وَشَعَرًا وإن كَثُفَ بالماءِ

The integrals of the purificatory bath are two:

1. To have the intention to clear oneself of the state of major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) or a similar intention;
2. To wash the whole body with water, including the skin and the hair even if it is thick.

 

Prohibitions While in a State of Ritual Impurity (Hadath)

يحرم على المحدث حدثاً أصغر: الصلاة، والطواف بالكعبة، وحمل المصحف ومسه.
ويحرم على الجنب ما يحرم على المحدث حدثاً أصغر، وقراءة القرءان والمكث في المسجد،
ويحرم على الحائض والنفساء ما يحرم على الجنب، والصيام قبل انقطاع الدم، وتمكين الزوج والسيد من الإستمتاع بما بين سرتها وركبتها من غير حائل قبل الغسل


The one who invalidated his wudu' is prohibited to perform prayer, circumambulate the Ka^bah, and to carry or touch the Book of the Qur'an (Mushaf). However, the child who has reached the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz) and is studying in the Book of the Qur'an is allowed to carry it and touch it without wudu'.

It is unlawful for the person who emitted maniyy (junub) to do the aforementioned, and also to recite the Qur'an, or stay in a mosque.

It is unlawful for the menstruating and postpartum-bleeding women to do all the aforementioned actions, to fast before the cessation of bleeding, and to allow the husband or the master to enjoy the area between their navel and knees before they have performed the purificatory bath (ghusl). Some scholars said anything other than sexual intercourse is allowed.