THE CREATOR OF EVERYTHING DOES NOT RESEMBLE THE CREATIONS All praise and thanks is due to Allàh, the Lord of the universe. We ask Allàh to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him), and to protect his nation from that which the Prophet himself fears for it. May Allàh grant us sincere intentions and proper comprehension and make us among those who acquire the correct knowledge, sincerely implement it and guide others to that knowledge.

 

It is known by the sound logic and observation that an object has a boundary and a size. For example, the sun has a boundary and a size and the Creator is the One who created it with that boundary and size. In the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 13 verse: 

8
وَكُلُّ شَىْءٍ عِندَهُ بِمِقْدَارٍ. سورة : الرّعد

Means: Allàh created everything with a specific size. Also, in the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 39 verse: 62

اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ. سورة : الزُّمَر

Means: Allàh created everything. It is Allàh who created the objects and the Creator of all objects is not an object, size, form or shape. In the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 42 verse: 11

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْ ءٌ. سورة : الشّورى

Means: Absolutely nothing like Allàh in any way whatsoever.

Allàh created two types of objects; objects we can grab (tangible), such as a rock or a tree and objects we cannot grab (intangible), such as light or the soul. All the creations come under these two categories. Allàh does not resemble the objects that are tangible and the objects that are intangible. One who resembles something cannot create. For example, the sun is similar to the moon, both are objects and creations. It's not right nor is it logical to say the sun created the moon or the moon created the sun. Also we do not say that the sun created humans or humans created the sun. This is because the creation cannot create. However, Allàh who does not resemble the creations, it is He[1] who only has the attribute of creating (bringing things from a state of non-existence, into a state of existence). Allàh does not resemble anything we see in the universe or anything that we can imagine, because our sights and imaginations are part of the creations and are created by Allàh.

[1] The words 'He', 'His' and 'Him' when used in reference to Allàh must not be understood to refer to gender, because the wording is the same. However, the meaning is different. Allàh created males and females and is not similar to any of the creations whatsoever.

The Creator is the only One Who exists eternally (i.e. an existence without a beginning). So before Allàh created any of the creations, nothing other than Allàh existed. There was no place, no time, no earth, no Heavens (skies), no space, no darkness, no light, no Hellfire, no Paradise and no ^Arsh[2]. Al-Bukhariyy, Al-Bayhaqiyy and Ibnul-Jarud related that the Messenger of Allàh, Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

كَانَ اللَّهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ شَىْ ءٌ غَيْرُهُ. رَوَاهُ البُخارِيُّ في الصَّحِيحِ وَالبَيْهَقِيُّ في الأَسْماءِ وَالصِّفاتِ وَابْنِ الجارُود في المُنْتَقَى

Means: Allàh existed eternally and nothing else existed. This saying of the Prophet clearly proves beyond any doubt that the Creator of all places exists without a place, because it's impossible that after Allàh having been existent without a place, Allàh would change and dwell in a place! Also it is determined in the rules of the religion and the judgment of the sound mind that Allàh's existence does not change. Allàh does not change, because change is a sign of need and need is not befitting to attribute to Allàh. What changes from one state to another can't be God, because anything that changes is needy of the one that changed it and what needs others is weak and what is attributed with weakness, is not God. The Creator of all things that change, He (Allàh) does not change.

[2] The Heavens are located underneath Paradise and the ^Arsh is the ceiling of Paradise. The ^Arsh is the largest of the creations in size and has four pillars. Some refer to it in English as 'the Throne'.

What we as Muslims believe and say: 'After Allàh created all the places (i.e. earth, skies, space, Hellfire, Paradise and the ^Arsh), His existence now is as He was eternally without a place'. Imam abu Mansur Al-baghdadiyy who is a reliable scholar in Islam, in his book Al-Farqu Baynal-Firaq, that Imam ^Aliyy ibn abi Talib, the fourth of the caliphs (i.e. fourth leader of the Islamic nation) said:

قالَ الإِمامُ أَبو مَنْصُورٍ البَغْدادِيُّ في كِتابِهِ 'الفَرْقُ بَيْنَ الفِرَقِ' أَنَّ الإِمامَ عَلِيَّ بْن أَبِى طالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قالَ :

كانَ اللَّهُ وَلا مَكان، وَهُوَ الآنَ عَلَى ما عَلَيهِ كانَ.

Means: Allàh existed eternally and there weren't any places created and after He created all the places, He is now as He was without a place. One must understand that before the places were created, Allàh who created everything (places and everything else) existed without a place and after He created the places, Allàh still exists without a place. Keep in mind all the places are created and what is created exists with a beginning and Allàh exists without a beginning.

Beneficial Information: The ^Arsh (Throne) is the largest creation that Allàh created in size; Allàh did not create anything bigger in size than it and it's the ceiling of Paradise. The ^Arsh has 4 large pillars at each end which are carried now by four Angels. In describing the enormous size of these Angels that carry the ^Arsh, the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said the distance between their ear lobes and their shoulders, is the distance of what a fast-flying bird would cover in 700 years flying straight down. It is Allàh who created the ^Arsh as a ceiling for Paradise and did not create the ^Arsh as a place for Himself to sit on as some people wrongly claim. Imam abu Mansur Al-baghdadiyy related that Imam ^Aliyy ibn abi Talib said:

قَالَ الإِمامُ سَيِّدُنا عَلِيُّ بْن طالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ : إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَلَقَ الْعَرْشَ إِظْهارًا لِقُدْرَتِهِ وَ لَمْ يَتَّخِذْهُ مَكاناً لِذاتِهِ.

رَوَاهُ الإِ مامُ أَبُو مَنْصُورٍ البَغْدَادِيُّ

Means: Allàh created the ^Arsh as an indication of His Power and did not take it as a place for Himself. One should remember these words and he/she would not go wrong. Before the Creator created anything, He did not need anything. So those who believe or say the Creator is in need of things, what we as Muslims reply back to them: "Why would the Creator need anything, when He created everything?" It is easy for one to understand that Allàh created the earth and He is not in need of it. Likewise, Allàh created the skies and all the other places and He is also not in need of them. Allàh existed before their existence and after creating them into existence; He still exists without any need of them. In the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 112 verse: 2

اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ. سورة : الإخلاص

Means: Allàh does not need any of the creations and all of His creations need Him. All the creations are in complete need of their Creator. Remember, the one who is in need of something cannot do without it for example; humans have a need to eat and sleep. They cannot live without eating or sleeping and this is a weakness on their behalf. Allàh is not in need of the creations, because the one who is in need of something is weak and the one who is weak does not deserve to be worshipped. Allàh is not weak, because He is the Creator and the Creator is the only One Who truly deserves to be worshipped.

The Creator of all things is not contained by the six directions. A well known Muslim scholar by the name of Imam abu Ja^far At-Tahawi (b.229 d.321After Hijrah[3], 828/920), also lived in the Salaf[4] era, wrote a very famous book called Al-^Aqidah At-Tahawiyyah. He mentioned that the subject of this book is an explanation of the Creed of the people of Ahlussunnah wal-Jamma^ah, which is also the same Creed Imam abu Hanifah and his to close students adhere to. Imam abu Hanifah is one of the authorities of Salaf (b.80 d.150AH, 679/749). Imam abu Ja^far At-Tahawi in his book Al-^Aqidah At-Tahawiyyah statement #37 said:

قالَ الإِمامُ أَبُو جَعْفََََََرٍ الطَحاوِيُّ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ في بَيانِ عَقِيدَةِ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَماعَةِ :

وَتَعَالَى عَنِ الْحُدُودِ وَالغَايَاتِ وَالأرْكَانِ وَالأَعْضَاءِ وَالأَدَوَاتِ. لا تَحْوِيهِ الْجِهَاتُ السِّتُّ كسائرِ الْمُبتَدَعاتِ.

Means: Allàh is clear[5] of all limits[6], boundaries[7], sides[8], organs[9] and limbs[10]. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all the created things are. The six directions are (above, below, in front, behind, right and left). These six primary directions which are created by Allah contain only the created things.

[3] The immigration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him), from Mecca to al-Madinah was an order by Allàh. This Hijrah was also the start of Prophet Muhammad's Islamic nation calendar.

[4] The Salaf were among the Muslims who lived during the first three centuries after Hijrah. The Prophet praised the Salaf by saying:

خَيْرُ القُرُونِ قَرْنِى ثُمَّ الذين يَلُونَهُمْ ثُمَّ الذين يَلُُُُونَهُم. رَوَاهُ البخارىّ

Means: The best of the people (i.e. the Muslims who live in Prophet Muhammad's nation) are those who live in my first century, then those who come after them in the second century, then those who come after them in the third century. So all what is relayed to us from those scholars in that era, the Prophet praised them and we as Muslims must take their knowledge on board in our lifetime, because their belief is in total agreement with the Messenger of Allàh and all of his companions. Imam abu Ja^far At-Tahawi lived during the first 300 years after the immigration of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), from Mecca to al-Madinah. Hence, Imam At-Tahawi is among the Salaf scholars. The Creed that he complied and explained is the same Creed of all the Salaf and also the Creed that is taught today to the students of Al-Azhar Al-Shariff University in Cairo.

[5] Clear in this contexts means Allàh is not attributed with these imperfect created attributes.

[6] All bodies have limits.

[7] A boundary is an enclosing line or border. What is surrounded is a creation and is in need of one to have specified it with that boundary. What needs others is not perfect and is not God. Imam Abu Ja^far At-Tahawi, is one of the Salaf scholars. He is confirming that Allàh is not attributed with a boundary. What has ends, sides, organs and parts, is a body. This disqualifies one from being God. A body is either above, below, in front, behind, to the left, or to the right of another body. Every creation is confined to these six primary directions. However, Allàh the Creator is clear of these six primary directions, because the Creator existed before He created them, without Him being in one or more directions.

[8] All bodies have sides.

[9] Large bodily organs, like face, torso, arms, shins and foot etc.

[10] Small bodily organs, like eyes, ears, hands, fingers, tongue and lips etc.

It must not be believed or said that Allàh exists inside everyone or He is everywhere. What we as Muslims believe and say: "Allàh has knowledge about everything in everywhere". A true story that actually happened which concerns this topic. There once was an ignorant person who believed that God physically exists everywhere and he was also explaining this wrong belief to an Atheist. The Atheist said to him: 'If you claim that God exists everywhere, then God is under my shoes!' The ignorant person had no way of refuting the Atheist, because he had the wrong belief about God to begin with. Had he been on the right belief about God, that God exists without a place and God is not everywhere, God has knowledge about everything in everywhere. He then would have known how to have responded to that Atheist who had the nerve to say such an ugly blasphemous statement. One must know that if a Muslim said God is everywhere, but meant here God has knowledge about everything in everywhere then this person does not blaspheme. But this statement (God is everywhere) is incorrectly worded and is sinful in Islam. However, if one meant that Allah is physically everywhere, then one has committed blasphemy for attributing Allàh to containment in places.

Beneficial Information: When Muslims lift their hands and face towards the sky when performing du^aa (supplicating to Allàh for something beneficial), it does not mean that Allàh exists in the skies. Imam Al-Nawawi said:

في شَرْحِ صَحِيح مُسْلِم يَقولُ الإِمَامُ النَّوَوِيُّ : السَّمَاءُ قِبْلَةُ الدُّعَاء.

Means: The skies are the direction for the du^aa (i.e. supplication). Muslims lift their hands and face towards the skies, because it is the direction for the du^aa, just as the Ka^ba (Mecca) is the direction for all Muslims around the world face towards it when praying to Allàh. Also one must know that Muslims face towards the Ka^ba in obedience to Allàh, because Allàh ordered us to do so when we pray. Muslims don't worship the Ka^ba or any other creation, we only worship Allàh. Therefore, Muslims lift their hands and face towards the sky when performing du^aa. This is because it is from the skies that the mercies and blessings from Allah descend.

No attention is given to the Mushabbihah[11] who say that the skies are the direction to perform du^aa (i.e. supplication) to use it as their so-called proof that Allàh occupies the skies. The Prophet made du^aa when his forehead was facing the ground while in prayer. The Messenger of Allàh, Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

مَا في السَّمَاءِ مَوْضِعُ أَرْ بَعِ أَصَابِعَ إلا وَفِيهِ مَلَكٌ قَائِمٌ أَوْ رَاكِعٌ أَوْسَاجِدٌ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ تَعَالى. رَوَاهُ الترمذي عن أبي ذر الغفاري

Means: There is no space in the sky equal to the width of four fingers, except one would find an Angel worshipping and glorifying Allàh, either in standing, bowing or prostrating position. The Angels stay as such until the Day of Judgement, worshipping Allàh their Creator. This saying of the Messenger of Allàh is another proof that Allàh does not exist in the skies. This is because those who claim that Allàh exists in the upper skies are claiming Allàh is in between the Angels and His size is the width of four fingers? This is impossible, because the Creator is not a body, object, size, form or shape.

[11] The term Mushabbihah is an Arabic word used to describe those who liken Allàh to the creations in which they attribute to Allàh a place, direction, body and organs. These beliefs are clear blasphemy.

It is Allàh who created everything and He does not resemble anything whatsoever and this is also easy to understand and accept. Humans have limits; they cannot always do what they want to do. Allàh is not like humans. Allàh is not something invisible, because invisible is a created thing. Air is something created, but it is invisible to us. Allàh is not a light, either a white light or a yellow light. Allàh created the light. Light can be stopped by putting a dense solid object in front of its source. Allàh is not air. Air has a volume and needs space. Both light and air occupy a space and Allàh does not occupy a space, because space is contained in the six primary directions. Space is a creation and Allàh is not in need of space, because He existed eternally before space and time were created. The Creator of space is not contained in space and the Creator of time is not bound to time. Allàh is not a colour. Colour is one of the creations of Allàh. Allàh is not a spirit. Spirit is found in humans and in animals and Allàh does not resemble humans or animals. Allàh is not an energy, gas, liquid or a solid.

Every Muslim must know that our Lord has no shape or form. Shapes and forms are described with how questions and how questions do not apply to Allàh. Muslims believe and say: 'Allàh exists without a how'. (How?) is a word used only to describe what is created and everything other than Allàh is attributed with a how manner. How is a question related to shapes, bodies, places, depth, height, width and dimensions. Therefore, know beyond a doubt that the question 'how' (kayf كَيَّفَ ) does not apply to Allah. Imam Aliyy ibn abi Talib was once approached by a group of people who asked him: 'How is Allàh'. Imam Aliyy ibn abi Talib answered them by saying:

ذَكَرَ السُّيوطِيُّ في تارِيخِ الْخُلَفاء : أَنَّ قَوْماً سَأَلُوا سَيِّدَنا عَلِيَّ بْنِ أَبي طالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ كَيْفَ اللَّه؟

َقالَ سَيِّدُنا عَلِيُّ بْن أَبِي طالِبٍ : هُوَ الَّذِي كَيَّفَ الْكَيْف فََََلا يُقالُ كَيْف.

Means: Allàh created what is described with a how. So the word 'how' does not apply to Allàh. Hence, the statement: 'No one knows how Allàh is', must never be said. This is because the one who attributes how to Allàh is like one is implying Allàh is a creation, but is ignorant of the how manner of it. Allàh is the Creator of all that is attributed with how, the manner of being (i.e. all things which make up the creations). Remember, when one asks the question how, the answer would be like this or like that. Everything other than Allàh is a creation. So for one to say: 'Like this or like that', it would mean like this or like that created thing and Allàh does not resemble any of the creations. Also, it's not permissible and it's blasphemous to say: 'Where is Allàh (i.e. location)', because it is like one is implying that Allàh is in a place and as we have explained previously, Allàh exists without a place. In the book Ar-Risalah Al-Qushayriyyah by Abul-Qasim al-Qushayriyy, Imam ^Aliyy ibn abi Talib said:

الإم عَلِيَّ بْنِ أَبي طالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قالَ : لا يقال أين لمن أيّن الأين.

Means: The question of 'where' (i.e. location) does not apply to the One who created the whereabouts. Imam abu Hanifah, in his book Al-Fiqh Al-Absat said:

نَقَلَ الإِمامُ أَبُو مَنْصُورٍ الْمَاتُرِيدِيُّ في شَرْحِهِ عَلى الْفِقْهِ الأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ الإِمامَ أَبا حَنِيفَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قالَ : كان قبل المكان، كان ولم يكن أين ولا خلق وهو خالق كل شىء.

Means: Allàh existed eternally and there was no place. He existed before creating the creation. He existed, and there was no place, creation, or thing. He is the Creator of everything. Also in the same book Al-Fiqh Al-Absat, Imam abu Hanifah said:

الإِمامَ أَبا حَنِيفَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قالَ : مَنْ قالَ لا أَعْرِفُ اللَّهَ أَفي السَّماءِ هُوَ أَمْ في الأَرْضِ فَقَدْ كَفَر.

Means: Whoever says: 'I don't know if Allàh is in the sky or on the earth', commits blasphemy. This is because they imagined Allàh in some place and whoever imagines Allàh in a place, is a person who likens Allàh to the creations. It is also blasphemous to believe or say: 'No one knows Allàh's place except Allàh' or 'We don't know how Allàh's place is'. These two phrases are also attributing Allàh with a place.

Our existence is in a place and Allàh's existence is not in or on a place and if Satan or a devil whispers to you and says: 'How can Allàh exist without a place?' Just remember this example. There was once no darkness and no light created. In the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 6 verse: 1

وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ. سورة : الأنعَام

Means: Allàh created the darkness and the light. Since the human mind is limited to what it can imagine, so can we imagine how it would have been before Allàh created the darkness and the light? The answer is 'No'. The same judgement applies to the human soul. We as humans are ignorant of the how manner of our soul in our own body. Then how dare some people who have that nerve to come to a conclusion and say: 'How is Allàh', when Allàh exists without a how and without a place.

As the sound mind determines that Allàh existed without a place before creating the places, the sound mind also determines that after Allàh created all the places, He still exists without a place. The Creator of all things that change, He (Allàh) does not change. A Muslim scholar who is well known for being very God fearing, by the name of Ahmad ar-Rifa^iyy al-Kabir said a wonderful statement:

قالَ الشَّيْخُ أَحْمَدُ الرِّفاعِيُّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ : غَايَةُ المَعْرِفَةِ بِاللَّهِ الإِيقَانُ بِوُجُودِهِ تَعَالَى بِلا كَيْفٍ وَلا مَكَانٍ.

Means: The ultimate knowledge about Allàh is to be certain that Allàh exists without a how and without a place.

The belief that Allàh exists without a how and without a place is the creed of the Messenger of Allàh (peace and blessing be upon him), the Companions and those who graciously followed them and it shall be till the Day of Judgment. The proof of this precious statement is what is mentioned in the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 42 verse: 11

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْ ءٌ. سورة : الشّورى

Means: Absolutely nothing like Allàh in any way whatsoever. This verse reflects the core of Tawhid[12] and is the clearest verse in the whole entire Qur'an that when it's recited, its meaning is so clear that Allàh is absolutely and totally clear from resembling the creations in everyway. Hence, it's also proof that Allàh exists without a place, because whatever exists in a place would be made up of particles (i.e. it would be a body occupying a space) and the Creator is not a body that occupies a space. The words body, place and space means: That which has depth, height and width. What has depth, height and width is a creation beyond any doubt. Imam Ja^far as-Sadiq who is among the Salaf said:

قالَ الإِمامُ جَعْفَرُ الصَّادِقُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ : مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ في شَيْءٍ أَوْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ أَوْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَقَدْ أََشْرَكَ إِذْ لَوْ كانَ في شَيْءٍ لَكانَ مَحْصُورًا أَوْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ لَكانَ مَحْمولاً وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ لَكانَ مُحْدَثاً أَيْ مَخْلُوقاً.

Means: Whoever claims that Allàh is in something, or on something, or from something, commits shirk[13]. This is because if Allàh was in something, He would be confined. If Allàh was on something, He would be carried. If Allàh was from something, He would be something that has a beginning (i.e. creation).

[12] Tawhid (the Uniqueness) means no other has Allàh's attributes and that Allàh is the only God who does not resemble any of the creations.

[13] Associating partners to Allàh or in another phrase, worshipping other than Allàh, which is blasphemy.

Beneficial Information: Ta^ala تَعَالىَ is a word from the Holy Qur'an which means: Allàh is absolutely and totally clear of all non-befitting attributes that the blasphemers attribute to Him. Allàh is not attributed with attributes of the creation, like bodily attributes, colours, shapes, movements, stillness, suspending, sitting, resting, descending, climbing and any other attributes of the creations. This is why the people of Truth (Ahlussunnah wal-Jamma^ah put footnote and explain who we are) say: "Allàh exists without a place", because the one who exists in a place must have a limit and anything that has a limit is a creation and is also in need of the one who specified it with that limit. Furthermore, whatever is in need, certainly is not the Creator. This is the proof that Allàh is clear of existing in any place or direction. We do not say that Allàh exists in the direction of above. We do not say that Allàh exists in all places, or everywhere. Rather, Allàh exists and He does not resemble other things that exist. Hence, Allàh exists without a place.

Very Important Note: When we as Muslims believe and say that Allàh exists without a how, without a place and without a direction; this does not imply that Allàh does not exist. Allàh exists without a doubt. However, Allàh's existence does not resemble other things that exist and Muslims submit to this without any doubt whatsoever.

The followers of Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah (b.664 d.729AH, 1263/1328) and Muhammad ibn ^Abdil-Wahhab (b.1117 d.1206AH, 1703/1792) are among the group of the Mushabbihah and their followers today are known as Wahabies. They believe Allàh is a body and exists in a place (they believe and teach Allàh exists above the ^Arsh and they say Allàh changes and occupies the skies). These statements are clear blasphemy. The Mushabbihah claim to follow the Holy Qur'an and the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), however that is not the case in reality. They take only the literal meanings to the ambiguous verses in the Holy Qur'an and the ambiguous Hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) to which they liken Allàh to physical hand or a face, or that He sits on the ^Arsh (ceiling of Paradise), or that He occupies a certain direction and place. Such false interpretations results in likening Allàh to the creations, which Islamically is blasphemous and clashes with a unambiguous fundamental verse in the Holy Qur'an, chapter 42: verse 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْ ءٌ. سورة : الشّورى

Means: Absolutely nothing like Allàh in any way whatsoever. As a result, they have been lead astray and de-railed from the path of Islam. The scholars of Islam have said the Mushabbihah recite this verse in the Holy Qur'an, in chapter 42: verse 11:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْ ءٌ. سورة : الشّورى

Means: Absolutely nothing like Allàh in any way whatsoever. However, it does not go past their collarbone. If it did go past their collarbone, then the meaning of the verse would have entered their hearts and they would not have contradicted a fundamental verse in Holy Qur'an.

O people be alert and don't be mislead by those mushabbihah who have been lead astray from the path of Islam in relation to what's above the ^Arsh (the Throne; ceiling of Paradise). They believe and say Allàh exists above the ^Arsh and they (the mushabbihah) also claim Allàh is sitting on the ^Arsh. This belief and statement is clear blasphemy. Did mushabbihah forget that above is a direction and what has a direction is a place? Imam abu Ja^far At-Tahawi (b.229 d.321AH, 828/920) in his book Al-^Aqidah At-Tahawiyyah statement #37 said:

قالَ الإِمامُ أَبُو جَعْفََََََرٍ الطَحاوِيُّ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ في بَيانِ عَقِيدَةِ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَماعَةِ :

تَعَالى عَنِ الْحُدُودِ والغَاياتِ والأَرْ كانِ والأَعْضَاءِ والأَدَوات. لا تَحْوِيهِ الْجِهَاتُ السِّتُّ كَسَائِرِ الْمُبْتَدَعاتِ.

Means: Allàh is clear of all limits, boundaries, sides, organs and limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all the created things are. The six directions are (above, below, in front, behind, right and left). These six primary directions which are created by Allàh contain only the created things. Imam abu Ja^far at-Tahawi who is among the Salaf, openly stated that Allàh is totally clear of being contained by the six directions. Imam abu Hanifah (b.80 d.150AH, 679/749) who was also among the Salaf, in his book Al-Wasiyyah, said:

قَالَ الإمامُ أبو حنيفَةَ رضي اللَّه عنه في الوصيَّة : نُقِرُّ بأنَّ اللَّهَ تعالى اسْتَوَى على العَرشِ مِن غيرِ أنْ يكونَ له حاجةٌ واستِقرارٌ عليه، وهو حافظُ العرشِ وغيرِ العرشِ مِن غيرِ احْتِياجٍ ولو كان محتاجاً لمَاَ قدر على إيجادِ العالم وتدبيرِه كالمخلوقين ولو كان مُحْتاجاً لِلجلوسِ والاستقرار فقَبْلَ خلقِ العرشِ أين كان اللَّه؟ تعالى عَنْ ذلك عُلُوّاً كَبيرّاً.

Means: Allàh is the maintainer of the ^Arsh and everything else. Allàh is not in need of anything. For had Allàh been in need, He would not have the power to create, control and maintain the world. Furthermore, had He been in a place needing to sit and rest, before creating the ^Arsh, where was Allàh? That is, the question: 'Where was Allàh', would have applied to Him, which is impossible.

The Fatwà[14] of Imam Abu Hanifah in regards to the blasphemy of those who maintain that Allah is in the sky. In his book Al-Fiqh Al-Absat, Imam Abu Hanifah said::

الإِمامَ أَبا حَنِيفَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قالَ : مَنْ قالَ لا أَعْرِفُ اللَّهَ أَفي السَّماءِ هُوَ أَمْ في الأَرْضِ فَقَدْ كَفَر.

Means: Whoever says: 'I don't know if Allàh is in the sky or on the earth', commits blasphemy. Keep in mind that those mushabbihah who say Allàh exists in the upper direction and is sitting above the ^Arsh, are claiming that the directions and the ^Arsh are eternal entities (i.e. an existence without a beginning)! Here they have belied a verse in the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 57 verse: 3

هُوَ الأَوَّلُ. سورة : الْحَديد

Means: He is the First (Allàh's existence is without a beginning). Allàh is only One Whose existence is eternal without a beginning. Remember, the Creator means: The One who brings everything from the state of non-existence into the state of existence. In the Holy Qur'an, chapter: 39 verse: 62

اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ.